The sun energy source is not nuclear fusion but magnetic fields from the center of the Galaxy. The sun converts energy to mass and not mass to energy.
Abstract: The sun energy source thought to be a nuclear fusion reactor inside the sun core. The sun is not heated by fusion reaction but by magnetic fields coming from the galactic center. The nuclear fusion is a by product of the magnetic fields heating. The changing magnetic fields from the galactic center induce electric currents inside the sun that heat the sun. The heat and the high kinetic energy of particles in the sun core, trigger high energy collisions that create the main constituents of matter, electron, proton and neutron. The collisions also fuse or nucleosynthesis heavier elements like deuterium, tritium, helium and lithium. This leads to the fact that the stars and galaxies constantly produce mass and energy. The article will explain the clockworks behinds the galaxies energy production. The galaxy energy and mass production cancel out the Big Bang theory and leads to a steady state cosmological model with large amount of new mass created that expand and accelerate the universe.
The latest development in cosmology especially the finding that the universe is not only expanding but also accelerating brings back Einstein cosmological constant.
To explain the accelerating universe dark energy is assumed to repel the galaxies and cause the acceleration of the universe. The dark energy is based on developments in quantum mechanics that find huge quantities of energy in vacuum. The dark energy and dark matter that explains the rotation curves of galaxies is found to be 96% of the universe while the regular baryonic matter that the stars and plants are build of is only 4%. However there is no experiment done on earth or conclusive evidence that proves such dark matter or dark energy truly exists. This lack of prove is also true for the Big Bang Theory. There is no experiment to show that vacuum can spontaneously explode creating high energy and mass.
The source of such unintuitive theories, to explain cosmological observation, emerges from our misunderstanding of an every day process that is taken for granted and is never questioned. This is our understanding or rather misunderstanding of the energy source of the sun and other stars. There is a historical theory that tries to explain the sun heat based on gravitational energy. According to this theory the sun was created from solar nebula.
When all the atoms free fall to the center of the nebula their speed was converted into heat. Similar theory was proposed in the nineteen century by Lord Kelvin and said that the sun heat is from gravitational energy especially by meteorites falling into the sun.
The current day nuclear theory says that the sun is a nuclear fusion reactor and the heat emerges from fusion of hydrogen atoms to helium. The fused helium is lighter then the hydrogen so the sun converts the mass surplus into energy. Still there are some difficulties in this model. In every galaxy there are constantly new born stars. Some of them the blue super giants are 50 times more massive then the sun and they burn hydrogen much faster then the sun. This limits their life expectancy to only about ten million years. If such massive stars are born constantly, and they burn hydrogen so fast, the hydrogen is burning very fast, so where all the hydrogen is coming from. The interstellar medium does not contain so much hydrogen. The interstellar hydrogen is coming from stars inside the galaxy in stellar wind, and in supernovae.
The source of the universe mass and energy was a mystery and lead to the creation of the Big Bang theory. The Big Bang theory try to explain that by stating that all the matter of the universe including the hydrogen fuel was created at the time of the Big Bang.
This paper will show that the true mass and energy source of the universe is the galaxy.
Many facts that will be presented here show that the source of the sun heat is changing magnetic fields or induction. The magnetic fields are coming from the galactic center; they propagate through the galactic disk and heat all the stars in the disk. The changing magnetic fields create by induction electric currents in the sun plasma. The electric currents heat the sun plasma and make the sun shine. Fusion of hydrogen in the sun is a by product of the heat created by the magnetic fields. At the sun core the immense heat created by the induction currents increase the particle speed and kinetic energy. As the particles collide their high kinetic energy is converted to mass by creating new particles according to Einstein equation E=MC2. The sun is not converting mass into energy but converting energy into mass.
Many of the observed phenomena on the sun are magnetic so it is reasonable to think that the sun is heated by magnetic induction.
This stars mass creation can explain where all the mass in the universe came from and why the universe is expanding and accelerating. It also can explain how the heavy elements are created in the universe. It is believed that many heavy elements are created in supernovae; this is because the fusion of heavy elements consumes energy and not produces energy as hydrogen does. Since the energy of the stars is coming from magnetic fields and not from fusion then the nucleosynthesis of heavy elements occur in red giants.
If the stars produce mass and energy then we can say that the galaxies produce mass and energy. The galaxies are the universe machines to create mass and energy.
If the sun is heated from magnetic fields from the center of the galaxy, where the energy of the galaxy is coming from? The magnetic fields create mass in the stars, and when this mass is ejected into space as solar wind, it starts to free fall to the center of the galaxy. The gravitational potential energy of the free falling dust and gas is collected by accretion disks of black holes at the galactic center. This gravitational potential energy is much higher then the energy used to create the mass. The accretion disks combined with the dynamo effect create the magnetic fields at the galactic center that produce more mass at the stars, and so forth.
If a galaxy is getting bigger and heavier all the time at some point it will spawn a new galaxy. The continuous addition of mass to the galaxy increases the mass of the spiral arms of the galaxy, and increase the arm length and its distance from the galactic center. The stellar wind ejected by the stars at the remote arm begin to collect locally at the arm itself until the arm is so heavy it detach from the main galaxy and became a satellite galaxy. Many of the pictures taken of colliding galaxies or interacting galaxies are actually instances of one galaxy spawning another. The spawning of new galaxies, lead to the expansion and acceleration of the universe.
The rotation speed of stars in the galactic disk around the galactic center should obey Kepler third law. The expected stars speed should be proportional to the inverse of the radius squared as shown in Figure 6-(B). However observation of various galaxies yields a rotation curve that is almost flat Figure 6-(A). The usual explanation for the flat curve is based on the existence of dark matter that has no luminosity and cannot be seen. The dark matter is filing the galactic disk far beyond the stars to increases the gravitation in the galaxy.
It is possible to explain the flat rotation curve based on magnetic fields in the galaxy.
I will start first by depicting a well known experiment. The magnet levitation over a superconductor Figure 1 or the Meissner effect causes a magnet to float in the air when placed over a superconductor. The magnetic field of the magnet induces electro-motive force and currents in the superconductor according to Faraday’s law. Those currents according to Lenz’s law create magnetic fields in the superconductor that oppose the magnet magnetic fields and therefore repel it to make it float and oppose gravity.
If I take a string and tie it to the superconductor I can drag the superconductor slice along the table Figure 2. If the magnet is floating on the superconductor and you drag the superconductor the magnet will not fall to the table but will follow the superconductor and stay floating on top of it wherever we drag it. This is also an outcome of Lenz’s law. The induced currents and magnetic fields of the superconductor will oppose any movement of the magnet above relative to the superconductor.
The hot plasma in the sun and other stars has very low electric resistance.
The resistance of the plasma is much lower then that of a metal and is very close to that of a superconductor. However its resistant is not zero and electric current inside the plasma will produce heat. The sun interior is not completely homogonous and there are sections of plasma that have different electric conductivity.
In additional to the property of a superconductor the sun has the property of a magnet. The sun magnetic filed has similarities to the earth magnetic field. The sun has a dipole magnetic field, and it is similar to that of a bar magnet.
One unique property of Superconductors is that the magnetic fields inside them are very close to zero. However the star plasma has higher then zero conductivity and magnetic fields pass through the plasma to produce heat. Not only that the star high magnetic permeability concentrate the magnetic fields from space to absorb more energy.
Figure 1: Magnetic Levitation of a magnet over super conductor. The conductivity of the plasma that the stars are built of is very high and near that of a super conductor. The stars could be imagined as pairs of superconductor and a magnet. This explains how slip in the galactic disk and movement of the stars relative to each other, induces electric currents in the stars plasma that is turned into heat that make the stars shine. This also explains the repulsion between stars and between galaxies.
Figure 2: If you take a superconductor and place a magnet on it, the magnet will hover above the superconductor. Suppose when the magnet is hovering you connect a string to the superconductor and drag the superconductor on the table. The magnet will stay hovering above the superconductor and will follow the superconductor. This demonstrates that the stars resist slip of the galactic disk and that resistance creates induction currents in the stars and heats them.
Superconductor and magnet model of the stars
Knowing that a star is composed of plasma with low resistance and has a magnetic field of a magnetic dipole, suggest a model of the sun and stars. The star according to this model has the combined properties of a superconductor and a magnet Figure 3. The stars will therefore behave similarly to the magnet and superconductor in the Meissner effect. A star will oppose the movement of nearby star. When, for instance a first star move toward a second star, the first star magnetic field will induce currents in the second star. According to Lenz’s law those currents will produce magnetic fields in the second star that will oppose the magnetic fields and movement of the first star. The resistant to movement will occur whenever a star move relative to another.
Figure 3: A star could be depicted as a combination of a superconductor and a magnet. The superconductor is a result of the high conductivity of the plasma and the magnet is a result of the star magnetic field. The star magnetic field is a combination of the magnetic fields from the galaxy that magnetize the star and internal magnetic fields created by the induced currents in the sun. The combination of superconductor and a magnet repel the stars from each other and eliminate collision between them. Since galaxies include many stars they also can be depicted as a combination of magnet and a superconductor.
The repulsion and resistance to movement can explain why there are no collisions between main sequence stars like the sun. Though, there are hundred billion stars in the galaxy the main sequence stars never collide. Other stars like neutron stars and white dwarf can collide because they are not composed of plasma and do not have the property of superconductor. The neutron stars could be imagined only as a magnet. Therefore neutron star will repel main sequence stars like the sun. However when two neutron stars come close together they cannot repel each other because there is no superconductor involve. Not only their gravity pulls them together but their magnetic fields align and add pulling force. The north pole of one neutron star come close and attracts the south pole of the second neutron star. Observations of sudden gamma ray bursts in the universe are known to occur from neutron stars massive collisions. Also white dwarfs are prone to collide. Whit dwarfs are lacking both plasma and magnetic fields. Some of the supernovae explosions are connected with white dwarfs. Since neutron stars and white dwarfs can easily approach a star, many binary stars (for instance Sirius) include white dwarfs or neutron star. One way to look at it is to divide the stars into two categories. One is like the white dwarfs and is affected only by gravitational fields and general relativity. The Second is effected by both the magnetic fields and the gravitational fields.
The galaxies similar to the stars inside them could be depicted also as a combination of magnet and superconductor. Seeing the galaxy as magnet and superconductor combination can easily explain the repulsion between galaxies, leading to the expansion and acceleration of the universe. This model can also imply that collisions between galaxies are rare. The rarity of collision between main sequence stars is a clear indication to the rarity of collision between galaxies. Most of the interacting galaxies observed are actually a creation of one galaxy from another or in other worlds spawning of a smaller satellite galaxy from a larger galaxy.
In the experiment of Figure 2 it was shown that superconductor will not only repel a magnet but will also resist any movement of the magnet relative to the super conductor. As shown in Figure 3 the stars could be depicted as a combination of superconductor and magnet. This lead to a model of the galactic disk, shown in Figure 4, that includes rings or layers of superconductor material and magnets. The superconductor in such a model will resist any movement of magnets in relation to them. When magnets will move in relation to the superconductor induction currents will flow in the superconductor that according to Lenz’s law will create magnetic fields that will oppose and repel the magnetic fields of the magnets. This implies a rigid model of the galactic disk where any movement of stars will be resisted. If we draw a rotation curve of the galactic disk according to the model of Figure 4 we will get a straight line as shown in Figure 5 where all stars have the same angular velocity. However the observed rotation curve as shown in Figure 6 implies that the angular velocity of stars far from the galactic center is smaller then stars near the galactic center. This means that there is movement of the magnets relative to the superconductors and induction currents are created. Since the stars plasma is not a perfect superconductor the currents create heat.
Figure 4: A star could be imagined as a pair of superconductor and a magnet. When one star moves toward a second star according to Lenz’s law the second star will repel the first star and oppose the movement. The magnetic fields of the first star induce electro-motive forces and currents, according to Faraday’s law, in the second star, and those currents create magnetic fields that repel the first star. This means that the stars will resist relative movement in the galactic disk. This leads to the rigid model of the galactic disk shown in this figure and a rotation curve shown in Figure 5. The actual flat rotation curve of the galaxies implies that the stars move in relation to each other. This creates induction currents and heat that fuel the stars.
Figure 5: According to the superconductor and magnet model of the stars shown in Figure 4. The stars will resist slip in the galactic disk. Therefore the relation between the star distance from the galactic center and rotational speed should be a straight line as shown in this graph. The deviation of the observed rotation curve of the galaxies from this linear relation shows that a considerable slip happens. The slip indicates that large amount of heat is produced in the stars.
Figure 6: Rotation curve of a galaxy. The speed of stars at the galactic disk should obey Kepler law and have a velocity that is inverse to the square of the distance to the galactic center. Actual measurements find that the rotation curve is almost flat. As shown in Figure 7 this could be explained by rotating magnetic fields that increase the velocity of the galactic disk. It could be also explained by the superconductor combined with magnet model of the stars that resist slip at the galactic disk.
The fact, that there is movement and slip in the galactic disk leads to a second model of the galaxy Figure 7. According to this model the galactic disk is comprised of several concentric rings capable of rotation on the same axis with air gap between the rings. Each ring includes an inner iron layer and an outer layer comprised of magnets. The galactic center in the model is also comprised of magnets. The rotation of the galactic center rotates the magnets at the galactic center and creates rotating magnetic fields. Those rotating magnetic fields induce current through the air gap in the iron layer of the first ring. The induced currents according to Lenz’s law will create magnetic fields that oppose the magnetic fields of the galactic center and will apply force to rotate the first ring. The first ring magnets layer will induce currents in the second ring iron layer and will rotate the second ring and so on. This way all the rings will rotate in the same direction but with different angular velocities. The inner ring will have the higher angular velocity and the most outer will have the smaller angular velocity. The velocity difference or slip means that the magnetic fields of the magnets cross the iron layers and create heat.
Figure 7: The galactic disk could be imagined as rings of iron and magnets layers. The galactic center in the model is comprised of rotating magnets, creating rotating magnetic fields. Those magnetic fields rotate the iron layer of the second ring according to Lenz’s law. The outer magnets of the second ring rotate the third ring and so forth. If the relation of a ring distance from the center to ring speed should be similar to the graph in Figure 5, then each ring angular velocity should be the same as its inner ring. If a ring is not with the same angular velocity but its angular velocity is slower then the inner ring (as in a galaxy rotation curve) a slip is created and the magnets of the inner ring heat the iron of the outer ring. In an exercise magnetic bike an iron wheel is spinning near magnets that break its rotation. After a workout you can feel the heat coming from the iron wheel.
According to the models of Figure 4, 7 the observed flat rotation curve and its deviation from the expected rotation curve of the galaxy could be explained. The forces that the rotating magnetic fields in the galactic center and in the galactic disk exert on the stars increase their angular velocity.
In Figure 10 there is an alternative model of the magnetic fields emanating from the galactic center. In Figure 7 the galactic center is depicted as a cylinder that stripes of north and south magnet poles are placed parallel to the cylinder axis. This placement will enable the rotating galactic center to heat the galactic disk by induction and to increase the angular velocity of the stars as observed by the flat rotation curve. However as in Figure 10 the galactic center could be depicted as several magnetic dipoles. This could be created if there is more the one black hole in the galactic center or there is a combination of black holes and neutron stars. The accretion disks of black holes and neutron stars will create magnetic dipoles that will align in opposite directions to each other as shown in Figure 10.
With this arrangement the induction heating and the increased rotation speed of the galactic disk will be feasible.
Figure 10: The magnetic fields created by the galactic center can be understood from this model. The galactic center contains several magnetic dipoles created by black hole and neutron star accretion disks. Those magnetic dipoles rotate with the galactic center, and send changing magnetic fields to the galactic disk, that heat the stars and increase their rotational speed.
The induction that transfers energy from the galactic center to the galactic disk does not require magnetic field in the galactic disk. The induction can be done by what is called “induced electric fields”. For demonstration we can take a long solenoid and put it inside a larger copper ring that its diameter is three times then that of the solenoid. If we pass changing current in the solenoid it will create changing magnetic flux. The flux will induce in the ring current. However the ring is not in a magnetic field therefore, we cannot say that the current in the ring is from influence of magnetic field on charged particles inside the ring. So it is explained by saying that “induced electric field” in the ring is caused by the changing magnetic flux in the solenoid.
The induced electric field can be stated with a modification of Faraday’s law.
Where is the magnetic flux through the solenoid, E is the induced electric field in the ring and l is the circumference of the ring. Similarly we can say that even if the galactic disk is not in a magnetic field induction is possible. Changing magnetic flux at the galactic center perpendicular to the galactic disk can induce currents in the stars by induced electric fields.
Similarity to an electric induction motor
The model of Figure 7 resembles in operation to an induction electric motor. The galactic center of Figure 7 resembles the stator of such induction electric motor and the galactic disk resembles the rotor. The stator of an induction motor produces a rotating magnetic field. The rotating magnetic field cross the rotor and induce currents in the rotor. The currents create magnetic fields that attract the stator magnetic fields and rotate the rotor. The currents in the rotor are analogous to the currents that heat the stars in the galactic disk. Figure 8 shows a graph of the rotor currents as a function of the rotor speed. The rotor speed in the graph on the X axis is the difference in percent of the rotor angular velocity and the stator magnetic fields angular velocity. The graph shows that when the rotor speed is identical to the stator speed no currents are induced in rotor. This situation is analogous to a rotation curve of the galaxy similar to that of Figure 5, with such rotation curve no currents are expected to flow inside the stars.
When the rotor speed in Figure 8 decrease and the slip between the stator and the rotor increase more magnetic field lines cross the rotor and more current is induced. This is analogous to the observed rotation curve in Figure 6 where there is a slip in the galactic disk as demonstrated in the model of Figure 7. The currents in the rotor produce torque that through the rotor shaft can transmit mechanical work. This torque can explain the deviation of the rotation curve of the galaxies from the expected rotation curve. The galactic center applies this torque on the galactic disk to increase the speed of the stars. If you take an induction motor like a fan motor and block the fan, the motor will heat very quickly because the rotor currents are very high. This can demonstrate the heat produced in the stars from the galactic disk slip. In summary, the slip at the galactic disk make stars cross magnetic fields from other stars, this apply torque that increase the speed of the stars and create heat.
Figure 8: Rotor current as a function of rotor speed of an electric induction motor. As the rotor get slower the rotating magnetic field of the stator cross the rotor faster and the rotor currents increase. The galactic center is analogous to the stator and the galactic disk is analogous to the rotor. The flat rotation curve of the galaxy in Figure 6 imply that slip occur in the galactic disk leading to induction currents in the stars.
There are two constituents producing the changing magnetic fields in the galactic disk. One is the rotating magnetic fields from the galactic center. The second is the slip in the galactic disk. The magnetic fields from the galactic center supply the energy to the galactic disk and apply torque to increase the speed of the galactic disk. The galactic disk slip conveys the torque and energy from the galactic center to the outer sections of the galactic disk. The production of energy and changing magnetic fields is at the galactic center where black hole accretion disk converts mass to energy.
The slip supports the rigid behavior of the galactic disk Figure 4 and affects the star speed at the inner and outer sections of the galactic disk.
The torque on the stars in the galactic disk near galactic center is forward, from the galactic center and backward, from the slip. Why the slip is pulling backward could be shown in the model of Figure 7 by the torque backward that an outer ring exerts on an inner ring. The torque on the stars at the outer sections of the galactic disk is forward by the slip.
Figure 9: The changing magnetic fields from the galactic center create magnetic fields eddies in the galactic disk. Each of those eddies is a magnetic circuitry that encompass million of start. In the figure part of a magnetic circuitry is shown passing magnetic flux in nearby stars. Those changing magnetic fields create the sun solar cycle and change the sun magnetic polarity from one solar cycle to the next. Those changing magnetic fields heat the stars. Some of the energy they supply is converted into mass and some is converted into electromagnetic radiation or luminosity.
Magnetic eddy circuitry
The galactic center creates changing magnetic fields that are sent to the galactic disk to induce current and heat in the stars. When changing magnetic fields pass through a large lump of iron or copper eddy currents are created and heat the metal. Those eddies are usually chaotic in nature. When we speak of the galactic disk we cannot speak of eddy currents because the space between the stars is not conducting. However the magnetic fields in the galactic disk could create eddies of magnetic fields and magnetic circuitry. Keeping in mind that the stars are different in size and type and the distance between them is not constant we can imagine that the magnetic fields are dispersed in very complex patterns. We can therefore predict that the galactic center transmits energy to the far sections of the galactic disk not by far reaching magnetic fields but through magnetic eddies. Such magnetic eddy circuitry can encompass millions of stars. In Figure 9 part of a magnetic circuitry is shown. The magnetic field lines are concentrated and pass through the stars due to the high magnetic permeability of the plasma. Those magnetic fields create the dipole pattern of the sun magnetic field. In Figure 9 the concentration of the magnetic fields by the stars decrease the magnetic field in the nearby left and right of the stars. This magnetic shading reduces the magnetic fields in the solar planets and in earth.
The Ulysses probe was send above the sun poles and find strong magnetic fields at high altitude over the poles. The high altitude and strength of those magnetic fields is indication that the sun is part of large magnetic circuitry that cross the sun and encompass many stars.
Effect on Earth and the solar planets
The solar planets have heat or energy surplus. They are hotter then what they suppose to be from the sun radiation. The heat surplus of the solar planets and earth could be explained by changing magnetic fields from the galactic center. The earth heat surplus is explained by the heat emitted by nuclear fission of heavy elements in earth. However the amount of heavy elements at the earth interior is unknown. It could be that nuclear heating can only produce few percent of the heat of the earth interior and the rest is from heat produced by magnetic fields from the galactic center. The high permeability of the iron at the earth interior helps to concentrate the magnetic fields and produce more heat. Strong evidence to the heating of earth by magnetic fields is the movement of the tectonic plates. The movement of the tectonic plates cannot be explained clearly by the convection model. The earth tectonic plates movement is a Magneto Hydrodynamics phenomena (MHD) caused by magnetic fields from the galactic center. The strong winds at the outer solar planets are also Magneto Hydrodynamics phenomena caused by magnetic fields from the galactic center.
Magnetic fields will change an elliptical trajectory of a star, planet or moon to a circular trajectory. When for instance a moon with elliptical trajectory that its core is electrically conductive and it circles a planet that has significant magnetic field, there will be induced currents and electro-motive force that according to Lenz’s law will resist any change of the distance between the moon and the planet. If the moon will increase its distance from the planets according to Lenz’s law it will be attracted more strongly to the planet, if it will get closer to the planet it will be repelled by the planet. This way the magnetic forces will change its elliptical trajectory to a circular trajectory and in the process will convert part of the kinetic energy of the moon to heat.
The solar cycle’s activity is monitored from about the year 1750 by counting the number of sunspots. The solar cycle repeat every 11 years during which the sunspots number reaches a maximum. The occurrence of sunspots is accompanied with strong magnetic fields at the sun surface.
The sun is a magnetic dipole just like earth but the sun dipole polarity is changing with the solar cycle and has different magnetic polarity every 11 years.
According to the current solar model it is believed mistakably that the solar cycle and the changing of the magnetic polarity is induced internally by the sun itself. However this is incorrect. The source of the sun solar cycle and the changing of the magnetic polarity are induced by magnetic fields originated at the galactic center. The mechanism by which the galactic center delivers power and energy to the sun and other stars is based on changing magnetic fields. The solar cycle and the changing magnetic polarity in the sun is manifestation of the galactic center magnetic fields power transmission. The galactic center apply changing magnetic field to the sun that are strong enough to change the sun polarity every 11 years. Those magnetic fields induce electric currents in the sun plasma that heat the sun. Figure 11 shows the interaction between the galactic center magnetic fields and the sun magnetic fields. In this Figure the galactic magnetic fields are represented by magnets. However as shown in Figure 9 those magnetic fields are coming far below and above the sun. Also as shown in the model of Figure 7 those magnetic fields rotate in the direction of the galactic disk rotation but faster. When the peak of the galactic center magnetic field is approaching the sun as in Figure 11(a) . The sun is resisting according to Lenz’s law the increase of the magnetic field and produce internal magnetic field that oppose the galactic center magnetic field. When the galactic center magnetic field peak is receding from the sun as in Figure 11(b) the sun resist the decrease in the magnetic field and flip the magnetic polarity so as to attract the galactic center magnetic field. This behavior illustrates a phase difference between the galactic center magnetic field and the sun magnetic field. The sun magnetic field is created by the galactic center magnetic field but its phase is in front of the galactic disk magnetic field.
Figure 11: The solar cycle is created from the galactic center magnetic fields. The sun here shown in yellow circle is stationary and the galactic magnetic fields represented as magnets are crossing the sun by moving to the left. The magnetic fields depicted here as magnets are actually coming far below and above the sun. (a) The magnetic peak is approaching the sun. The sun according to Lenz’s law will create opposing magnetic field with the same polarity as the approaching field. (b) The magnetic peak is past the sun and the sun flips its magnetic field polarity to create according to Lenz’s law magnetic field that opposes the decrease of the galactic magnetic field. It is clear that the galactic center magnetic field induce in the sun magnetic field and that the galactic center magnetic field and the sun magnetic field are out of phase. The solar system is inclined 60 degrease to the galactic disk so this figure is simplified.
This movement of the galactic center magnetic fields as shown in Figure 11 will enable the rotating galactic center to heat the galactic disk by induction and at the same time to increase the angular velocity of the stars as observed by the flat rotation curve.
The interaction between the galactic center and the sun could be compared to alternating current transformer. In such a comparison the galactic center would be the primary winding the sun would be the secondary winding and the changing magnetic field of the solar cycle is the magnetic flux in the transformer core. Notice that the solar cycle magnetic field as monitored since 1750 has sinusoidal amplitude that is similar to the sinusoidal magnetic flux in a transformer core.
From the models of Figs. 4, 7 it is clear why the observed rotation curve and angular speed of the star at the galactic disk is above the expected angular speed as shown in Figure 6. However, when the angular speed of the stars increase, it is not clear why they are not receding from the galactic center by the centrifugal force. The explanation for this is that the magnetic fields at the galactic disk magnetize the stars and cause them to magnetically attract each other. To demonstrate that magnetize objects attracts each other we can use a simple experiment as shown in Figure 12. Two iron spheres connected to two levers are hanging on two hinges. The hinges allow the balls only to move toward each other but not toward the magnet. When the magnet is close to the balls it passes a magnetic field through the balls. The magnetic field magnetizes the balls turning them temporarily into magnets and causing them to attract each other. A common device that uses these phenomena is reed switch as shown in Figure 13. The reed switch closes its contacts when you bring a magnet near it, or bring it in magnetic fields from solenoid. There are two ferromagnetic contacts or reads at the switch center. When they are magnetized they pull each other until electric currents can flow between the contacts. The direction or polarity of the externally applied magnetic fields is not important and in every direction the contacts will be magnetized and closed. The reed switch is usually used as a proximity detector and in alarm systems; for instance if you put a magnet in a window and the window is opened a reed switch on the frame will open a circuit and turn on the alarm.
Figure 12: A simple experiment to demonstrate a magnetic pull of objects under magnetic fields. The figure shows two iron balls hanging on two levers. On the other side of the levers there are hinges that enable the ball to get near each other but not to move toward of the magnet. When the magnet is close to the balls it passes a magnetic field through the balls. The magnetic field magnetizes the balls turning them temporarily into magnets and causing them to pull each other.
Figure 13: Reed switch is an example that when you place a magnetic field near two ferromagnetic materials they became magnetize and pull each other. The contacts of the switch are at the center. When you bring a magnet near the contacts they pull each other and close a circuit. This demonstrate that the magnetic fields in the galactic disk cause the stars to attract each other and help to sustain the high speed of the stars in the galaxy rotation curve.
Another simple experiment can be conducted by placing two bolts or screws on a thin plastic board keeping a small distance between them. When you position a bar magnet beneath the board, near the screws, they will get magnetize and attract each other. Still another experiment is the known experiment where an iron dust is place on a board and a bar magnet is placed beneath. If you will watch closely you will see that the dust grain actually attracts each other until they form small dense veins of iron, in the direction of the magnetic field. The veins are created by the attraction of the dust particle to each other.
The sun energy balance
As show in Figure 11 the sun is heated by changing magnetic fields from the galactic center. The sun high magnetic permeability helps to concentrate the magnetic flux from the galactic center and maximize the absorption of energy from the galactic center magnetic fields. The changing magnetic fields induce electro-motive force and electric currents in the sun. Those currents pass through the sun plasma and heat it according to I2R. The heat energy increases the particles kinetic energy and velocity at the sun core. The high velocity of the particle leads to high impact collision that creates new particle and new mass. This is a conversion of energy into mass according to E=MC2. The kinetic energy of the particle at the sun core is converted to mass when the kinetic energy in the relative velocities of the colliding particles is higher then the rest mass of the newly created particles. Since the heat energy at the sun core is converted to mass the heat energy is decreasing and there is a cooling effect that limits the temperature in the sun core below a certain level.
Figure 14: The sun energy balance. Energy is received by the sun from magnetic fields created by the galactic center. The magnetic fields create electric currents inside the sun. The currents create heat, and at the sun core the heat is converted to mass by high energy collision of particle. When some of the hydrogen created by the sun is fused to helium the mass surplus of the fusion is converted back to energy. The fusion energy is absorbed by the sun and is used to heat the sun and create more mass. Some of the sun energy is lost by electromagnetic radiation.
The conversion of energy to mass at the sun core produces the building blocks of matter – electrons, protons and neutrons. The sun and other stars cores produce the light elements in the universe for instance Hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, helium and lithium and are the main source of light elements in the universe. The sun core fuses the building blocks of matter electron, proton and neutron into elements like helium in nuclear fusion. The sun is 21% helium so considerable amount of hydrogen is fused. The fusion reaction utilizes the presence of hydrogen and extreme heat to create helium or alpha particles. Since the mass of the fused helium is lighter then the mass of the four neutrons and protons there is a conversion of mass to energy. In other words part of the mass created by the magnetic fields induction heating is converted back by the fusion to energy. The energy produced by the fusion is lower then the original energy from the galactic center magnetic fields. Also the mass that the fusion reaction converts to energy is smaller then the original mass created from the magnetic fields. The energy that is produced by the fusion is absorbed by the sun and is used again to create new particle and mass. The fusion reaction is limited by the sun core temperature that is control by the cooling effect applied from creation of new particles and mass.
Neutrino emission from the sun
For three decades there was a neutrino paradox related to the sun. The sun emitted only third of the neutrinos that where expected from the standard solar model based on the sun fusion. However the paradox was solved lately by experiments done at SNO neutrino detector. The neutrinos once believed to be massless like photons but know are known that the neutrinos have mass. The existence of mass of the neutrino is based on the fact that when neutrinos pass in space there are oscillations between the three flavors of the neutrinos. The SNO neutrino detector confirmed that and settled the long neutrino paradox. Assuming that the SNO findings are correct and there is no contamination that influenced the data, there is seemingly a conflict between the theory presented here and the SNO findings. If the sun is heated by the galactic center magnetic fields and the fusion is only a by product and limited in scope, then the neutrino emission supposes to be much smaller then in the full scale fusion of the standard solar model. The solution to this conflict is that the nucleosynthesis of the building blocks of matter electron, proton and neutron emits neutrinos.
For instance you can see the emission of neutrino in the collision of electron and positron that creates a quark:
e+e- à W+W- à q qbar μ v
The collision creates quark pair, muon and neutrino.
The emission of neutrinos from the sun is the sum of the neutrinos from the small scale fusion reaction, and mainly from creation of new particles and mass.
Tokamak converts energy to mass and not mass to energy
It is well know that the half century of fusion research, especially in Tokamak fusion reactors, did not yield the desired unlimited energy source, that was hoped for. It is likely that similar to the sun the high energy collisions of the particles in the fusion reactor create new particles and new mass in the plasma, instead of increasing the temperature of the plasma. This is evident from the fact that the heating energy required to heat the plasma is enormous and the Tokamaks are constantly upgraded with new heating modules. The evidence that the heating energy of the fusion reactor go to production of new mass is in the presence of positrons in the heated plasma. When the reactor plasma is heated the high velocity collisions create electron positron pairs. Like the sun the Tokamak convert energy to mass and not mass to energy.
The galaxy energy cycle
The sun and other stars receive energy from the galactic center in the form of changing magnetic fields. Those magnetic fields heat the stars and enable them to shine and convert energy to mass. The question of course is where the galaxy is getting this immense energy from? The answer is that the mass created in the stars have gravitational potential energy relative to the galactic center. The dust and gas is free falling to the galactic center and in the galactic center it falls into black holes and neutron stars to create accretion disks. The free fall and the accretion disks multiply the mass and energy of the gas and dust.
The stars mass is constantly increasing from the galactic center magnetic fields. This mass is released by the stars to the interstellar space in several ways:
Solar wind that is ejected constantly from the sun and the stars.
Coronal mass ejections which are abrupt and massive form of the solar wind.
Red Giants decomposition. The red giants outer layers are far and loosely connected to the red giants core. The outer layers can eject large amount of mass up to 0.2 per second.
Planetary Nebula. Planetary Nebulas are born from red giants and also eject large amount of mass. During the Planetary Nebula life cycle its mass can drop from about 8 at its birth to about 1.1 .
Supernova and Nova also eject large amount of mass to the interstellar space.
The mass ejected from the stars fills the interstellar space with large amount of dust and gas. It is impossible to see the center of the Milky Way galaxy from earth because the interstellar dust and gas is blocking the view. It is also impossible to see the outer edge of the Milky Way Galaxy because of the dust and gas. The interstellar dust and gas falling to the galactic center is the fuel of the galaxy.
The dust and gas after released by the stars will start to free fall to the galactic center. The free fall of the dust particles can be divided to the following stages according to the distance from the galactic center:
When the dust particle is far from the galactic center the galaxy can be divided to two sections. One includes the galactic center and the other the outer part of the galaxy. The gravity force on the dust particle is the difference between the galactic center gravity forces and the galaxy outer parts gravity forces.
When the dust particle is near the galactic center. The gravity of the galactic disk is near zero. The gravity of the black holes at the galactic center keeps pulling the dust particle.
At the galactic center the dust particle is part of an accretion disk of a supermassive black hole and is gradually attracted to the accretion disk center.
At the galactic center the falling dust and gas in the black hole accretion disk is producing a lot of energy, evident by the high luminosity of galactic centers.
The dust and gas at the accretion disk became plasma moving at relativistic speeds that creates strong magnetic fields by the dynamo effect. The kinetic energy of the plasma motion is converted to changing magnetic fields that propagate in the galactic disk to provide energy to the stars in the galactic disk. The particles in the supermassive black hole accretion disk reach relativistic speeds that multiply the particle mass and energy.
In some galaxies the galactic center is exceptionally luminous and called Active Galactic Nuclei or AGN.
Figure 15 shows the energy cycle of the galaxy. It is shown that the galactic center magnetic fields create mass at the stars far from the galactic center. This mass has a significant gravitational potential energy, with respect to the galactic center. But, the magnetic fields do not lose energy in creating this potential energy; the magnetic fields only lose energy equal to the rest mass of the new particles created in the stars. The yellow arrow shows the energy of the magnetic fields absorbed by the stars. The red arrow shows the much larger amount of energy received by the galaxy from the free fall of the particle.
Figure 15: The galaxy energy cycle. The cycle starts when changing magnetic fields from the galactic center heat the star using induction. The heat or kinetic energy of particles at the star core is transformed there to mass(shown as the yellow arrow). A mass M0 created in the star core reach the star surface and ejected into space as solar wind. The particles start a relativistic free fall to the galactic center (shown as red arrow). The mass and energy of the particle after passing in the supermassive black hole accretion disk could be 1000 times the original energy M0 invested by the galaxy.
Figure 16 shows the energy cycle of the galaxy. The energy cycle is divided here to its components at the galactic center and at the star. At the galactic center the free falling dust and gas reach back holes accretion disk (4). The black hole accretion disk converts the dust and gas into plasma and according to the dynamo effect strong magnetic fields are generated and heat the stars at the galactic disk (1).
At the stars the galactic center magnetic fields heat the star. The energy is converted into mass by high energy collisions of particles at the sun core(2). New mass and matter is created and when it reach the star surface it is ejected by solar wind into the interstellar space (3)and start to fall to the galactic center.
Figure 16: The galaxy energy cycle divided to galactic center section and star section. At the galactic center the falling dust and gas produce magnetic fields that disperse in the galactic disk and heat the stars. In the star the magnetic fields from the galactic center heat the star and the heat energy is converted into mass by high energy particle collisions. When the new mass and matter reach the star surface it is ejected as solar wind and start to fall to the galactic center.
Figure 17 shows a graph of the energy cycle of a unit mass M0. The Y axis depicts the energy added to the galaxy. The X axis depicts the distance of the unit mass from the galactic center. The origin of the X axis is the full length of the distance from the star to the galactic center. As the distance to the galactic center decrease the X axis increase.
The energy cycle begin at the origin of the X axis where the unit mass is created in a star by the magnetic fields. When the galaxy is creating the unit mass it losses energy equal to the rest mass of the particle. Therefore its energy balance at the X axis origin is negative. The unit mass is then ejected from the star and start free falling to the center of the galaxy. As the unit mass fall its speed and energy increase. At the galactic center the speed and energy of the unit mass multiply by the accretion disk of the supermassive black hole.
Figure 17: The galaxy energy cycle in terms of unit mass. The cycle starts when changing magnetic fields from the galactic center heat the star using induction. The heat or kinetic energy of the particles is transformed in the star core to mass. A mass M0 created in the star core reach the star surface and ejected into space as solar wind. The particles start a relativistic free fall to the galactic center. The origin of the X axis is the distance of the star from the galactic center, as X increase the distance decrease until the falling mass reach the galactic center and the distance is zero. The mass and energy of the particle when reaching the galactic core could be 1000 times the original energy M0 invested by the galaxy.
The attraction of the dust and gas to the galactic center require several conditions that make the galaxy energy cycle more efficient. Black holes at the galactic center will make the energy production of the galaxy more efficient. On the other hand Black holes at the galactic disk will prevent free fall of nearby particles to the galactic center and disturb the energy production of the galaxy.
Part of the dust and gas ejected by the stars is lost by the galaxy and do not reach the galactic center. This dust and gas is scattered in the space between the galaxies and create the intergalactic medium. The intergalactic medium is rich with heavy elements produced by the stars. Some of the dust can escape the gravitation of the galaxy by high velocities. The origin of the high velocities could be supernova or high energy collisions between stars. If a galaxy is losing large amount of mass in this way it will hinder the galaxy energy and mass production.
The distance between the stars is far enough to enables the dust and gas particle to be attracted by the galactic center gravity and not by stars gravity.
The gravity of the stars accumulate some of the nearby free falling dust and gas. This accumulation of free falling dust and debris over billion of years is a dominant force in the creation of the planets around the sun and other stars.
The two complimentary parts of the galaxy energy cycle, the mass created in stars by magnetic fields and energy from free fall in accretion disk is within reason. However, combining them create a paradox that a galaxy is producing mass and energy from nothing and does not obey the energy conservation law. New developments in quantum mechanics find that vacuum contain large amount of energy. Therefore we can assume that vacuum is the true source of the mass and energy produced by the galaxies.
We are used to think of the gravitational potential energy as conservative but is it really?
Let’s take for instance a simple example. An asteroid is passing slowly near earth. Now we didn’t put the asteroid there and we didn’t invest any energy. Still under the influence of gravity the asteroid will gain speed and heat as it fall to earth. Where the energy came from? It must be vacuum.
The mass of the galactic center create strong gravity that pulls the dust and gas. The gravitational potential energy of the dust and gas multiply the gas and dust mass and energy. Therefore we can say the following sentence: mass create gravity and gravity creates mass.
Spawning of a small galaxy by a larger galaxy
The galaxies produce constantly new mass and energy. Since the galaxy mass increase more dust and gas is falling to the galactic center and the magnetic fields get stronger to deliver more energy to the stars. As the magnetic fields in the stars are getting stronger the mass of the stars increase. Because the magnetic fields in the galactic disk are getting stronger extra energy is available and new stars are born. During the NASA Apollo missions, samples of the moon rock where analyzed, to find that the sun temperature increased by 10% during the last billion years. This means that the sun mass increased by 10%. This increase is enormous.
The sun mass increase indicates that many stars in the galaxy have mass increase and therefore the galaxy has mass increase. The constant mass increase leads to spawning of new galaxies. As a galaxy is getting more massive and heavy the arm of the galaxy are also getting heavier. The stars in the arm are getting more massive and new stars are born. As the arm is getting heavier it is also getting more distant from the galactic center. At some point the dust and gas produced by the arm is not pulled by the far galactic center but by the closer galactic arm. The falling dust and gas to the galactic arm create a massive center that start to produce changing magnetic fields. This process spawns a new satellite galaxy that has its own energy cycle. As the satellite galaxy is getting bigger its magnetic fields are getting stronger and repel the main galaxy. The spawning of new galaxies is observed everywhere in the universe. Most of the observed colliding or interacting galaxies are actually spawning of new galaxy. In Figure 20 there is a picture of galaxy M51 that depict spawning of new galaxy in the left side of the picture. The arm of the galaxy is very elongated and far from the galactic center. The dust and gas at the newly created galaxy is falling locally to the satellite galaxy and not to the main galaxy. There are three factors that influence the spawning of new galaxy:
The distance of the local arm from galactic center. The more distance the arm is, the easier it is for the new galaxy to be spawned.
The mass of the local galactic arm. The more massive the arm is, the easier it is for the new galaxy to be spawned.
The mass and gravity attraction of the main galaxy galactic center. The more massive the main galactic center is, the harder it is for the new galaxy to be spawned.
The spawning of new galaxies creates new black holes at the main galaxy galactic arm. The new black hole is the center of the new galaxy and operates its energy cycle.
Elliptical galaxies could also spawn a new galaxy. The mechanism is different from that of the spiral galaxies. Before spawning the elliptical galaxy will get elongated and then gradually will have appearance similar to that of eyeglasses or the number 8.
Everywhere in the universe there are examples of massive galaxies with nearby smaller satellite galaxies. Those smaller galaxies were spawned from the massive galaxy and are offspring of the massive galaxy. The Milky Way is an example of a massive galaxy with nearby satellite galaxies. The satellite galaxies where spawned from the Milky Way. There are 14 satellites galaxies of the Milky Way like the Small Magellanic Clouds and The Large Magellanic Clouds. A look at the Local group also reveals that Andromeda includes many satellite galaxies. The M32 is a satellite galaxy of Andromeda M31 and was spawned by it. In the arms of Andromeda, there is still evidence of the M32 spawning.
Figure 20: Picture of M51 is an example of galaxy spawning. The mass and size of the galaxy is constantly increasing. When one of the galaxy arms is very heavy and far from the center of the galaxy, its gravitation is very strong. The dust that stars in that arm eject into space is attracted to the center of the arm and not to the center of the galaxy. The arm mass is increasing and it is starting to behave like a galaxy with its own energy source and mass production. The satellite galaxy starts to separate from the main galaxy when it’s magnetic fields increase and push out the main galaxy. The Milky Way satellite galaxies were spawned from the Milky Way.
The sun luminosity could be influenced by other factors like its position in the galactic arm. The sun could be in the outskirts of the galactic arm and during the last billion years reached the galactic arm backbone or more central position in the galactic arm. The magnetic fields in the galactic arm backbone are stronger then the magnetic fields at the outskirts of the galactic arm. Therefore the luminosity of the sun could be influenced by its position in the galactic arm.
The sun luminosity depends also on the spawning of new galaxies. After the spawning of new galaxy the amount of dust and gas falling to the galactic center is smaller because there are fewer stars in the galaxy. The smaller amount of dust produce weaker magnetic fields at the galactic center and this leads to decrease in the energy the stars at the galactic disk absorb. This will decrease the luminosity of the stars.
We can estimate the time it takes to spawn a new satellite galaxy. This estimation is based on assumptions and not on precise data.
A small satellite galaxy contains about 5 billion stars. The number of stars in the Milky Way is about 200 billion star. We assume that the Milky Way galaxy is adding to its mass 0.5% in billion years (1/20 of the sun mass increase). We can find that every 5 billion years the Milky Way is spawning a new galaxy. For this calculation we also need to assume that the Milky Way is staying roughly in the same mass after many spawns. It is possible that the galaxy mass is not staying the same but increase after many spawns.
If we observe many galaxies in the sky we can notice that there is no standard size for the galaxies. So part of the galaxy mass increase is permanently kept within the galaxy to constantly increase its size and the other part is lost to spawning of new galaxies.
If for instance only 50% of the galaxy mass increase is going for spawning of new galaxies the period between spawning of galaxies is 10 billion years.
A galaxy like the Milky Way will spawn a new galaxy every roughly about 10 billion years. In Figure 21 there is a graph of the galaxy mass, energy and luminosity during the spawning of new galaxies. Until a new galaxy is spawned the mass of the galaxy is increasing exponentially and new mass added to the galaxy increase the mass creation rate of the galaxy. After the new satellite galaxy is spawned the mass of the main galaxy is sharply reduced as the new galaxy mass is removed from the main galaxy.
After the new galaxy is spawned the amount of dust and gas falling to the main galactic center is reduced. This will reduce the strength of the magnetic fields from the galactic center and provide less energy to the stars.
The link between the sun luminosity and its position in the galactic arm could be understood from the rotation of the galactic arm. The galactic arm is spinning with constant angular velocity in all distances from the galactic center as in Figure 5 . If the angular velocity was not constant the galactic arms would scatter and lose their packed structure. The galactic arms keep their solid structure because of two reasons. First the stars in the galactic arms are magnetiz