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A Guide to Fuel Injector Cleaning – Methods and Precautions

The purpose of fuel injector cleaning is to remove the buildup of fuel varnish deposits and contaminants that clog injectors and affect their operation. They need periodic cleaning for optimal operation. Experts recommend fuel injector cleaning every 25,000 to 30,000 miles or once a year.

Fuel injector cleaning not only improves functionality but also helps restore and improve engine’s performance, reduce emissions and improve fuel economy.

One good thing in fuel injector cleaning is you can do it all by yourself, without the help of an auto mechanic. However, if the injector is badly clogged, you may need to take his help. Let’s take a look at the different methods used in the cleaning.

Method#1: Using fuel injector cleaning kits

Fuel injector cleaning kits are available at any auto supply store. Before connecting the kit, locate the fuel injector and take measures to prevent fuel entering the injectors. You can do this either by using tubing to bypass the fuel injector so that the fuel returns to the tank or by removing the fuel pump and blocking the fuel return line. Once it is done, disconnect the fuel pressure regulator.

Now, connect the cleaning kit to the fuel input port and remove fuel cap of the tank to release any pressure in the tank that may built up by the kit. Open the cleaning kit’s valve till its pressure value matches with the injection pressure value (you can find injection pressure value of your car’s engine from the manual).

Once the cleaning kit reaches the required pressure value, start the engine so that the cleaning solvent passes from the kit through the injector and removes the dirt and debris that clogged the fuel injector. This will take a few minutes. Once it is done, switch off the engine, remove the kit and reconnect the fuel lines, fuel pump and fuel pressure regulator. With this, the cleaning job is done. You can notice significant difference in your engine’s performance after the clean-up.

Method#2: Adding cleaner additives to the fuel

Adding cleaner additives, also called as detergents or deposit-control additives, to the fuel helps to control the dirt and debris accumulation in the fuel tank. These additives help reduce the volatility of lighter components of the fuel. Though, the fuel from gas stations do contain certain additives, some suppliers may not add the required amount of detergents; some even use use low cost, less effective alternatives. So, you need to add additional additives to fuel.

One of the commonly used best additives is polyetheramine (PEA). Though it is a bit expensive compared to others, it is proved to be effective in keeping the injectors, valves and combustion chamber clean and it does not require any additional fluidizers.

Method#3: Manual cleaning

On-car cleaning may not be that effective for a badly clogged injector because it cannot pass the cleaning solvent during the cleaning cycle. So, when on-car cleaning doesn’t work you can for off-car cleaning, which involves removing the injector from the vehicle and cleaning it. However, this

has to be done at service center.

Off-car cleaning requires special equipment and takes more time compared to on-car cleaning. However, this is more effective as it cleans each part of injector thoroughly. Moreover, it also allows flow-testing that checks the spray pattern and volume of the injectors to confirm that they are cleaned properly.


• Make sure to disconnect pressurized fuel connection

• Ensure there are no fuel leaks or high pressure solvents in the engine while it is operating. These solvents are highly flammable.

• Wear safety goggles for eye protection

• Close all open sources of ignitions such as sparking plugs

• Avoid contact with cleaning solvent

• Use only the cleaning kits specific to fuel injector cleaning. Don’t use other cleaners like carburetor cleaner, brake cleaner, etc.

• Don’t overuse fuel additives as they may eventually damage expensive catalytic converters

These are the popular methods used for fuel injector cleaning. If you experience clogged injectors frequently, it is better to replace them with good quality injectors that provide optimal performance for longer time.

Understanding Minibus Insurance

As per law, all the vehicles on the roads of UK must be insured – be it a private hire taxi, a minibus or a car. Insurance in general covers any sort of damage that could have occurred to your vehicle and in some cases cover the medical expenses of the ones involved in an accident with the vehicle.

Minibuses have gained popularity recently in the UK. Well, it is understandable. A minibus is the best option to consider when you need to transport regularly 9 to 16 people. In addition, some people use a mini bus for personal use – in such cases a family minibus can be only used for social or pleasure trips. Others use minibuses as a means of income by hiring them out.

The purpose of a mini bus may be varied, but the need to have it insured is essential. The packages available to get your minibus insured vary and you need to choose one based on the intended purpose of your minibus. The charity minibus cover package is only applicable when the minibus is used for non-profit making purposes. Other minibus owners can opt for the MPV (multi-purpose vehicles) cover package that applies to educational institutions and hospitals using the minibuses.

Fleet minibus cover package (this one can cover more than one minibus) is usually chosen by a company that runs a number of minibuses with varied purposes. And if you plan on running your minibus as a taxi – public hire or private hire, a specifically suited minibus cover package for this purpose is also available.

Because of the huge number of various insurance packages available in the market, it is necessary for you to understand the professional terms. This will help you to choose the insurance that will serve your purpose. By making a few extra arrangements you can also reduce the cost of the premium (the basic amount paid) of the insurance. These include ensuring you have a garage to park your minibus at night and designating predefined drivers that will have the option to use your minibus. There is also a ‘third party insurance’ provided for a minibus – this type of cover insures anybody who might be injured as a result of an accident that involves your minibus and any vehicle that might be damaged.

Minibus insurance is mandatory in the UK. So, once you acquire a minibus, you should become informed of all the options available on the market for minibus insurance. It is advisable to have a solid and multi-purpose cover, since it can cover any damage incurred to your minibus during any time of the year. Paying slightly more for the insurance can save you a lot of money in case of an accident.

Additional cover against fire and theft is also a good option to choose as those things do happen – and quite a lot nowadays. Comprehensive minibus cover can also be opted for to insure your minibus that has various cover options such as windscreen replacement due to collision etc. So, choose the cover that best suits your needs and worry no more!

Is The Limo Rental Business Lucrative? Pros And Cons

Starting a limousine rental business these days is seen as a good investment choice. As the tourism and hospitality markets have been stable for decades, this investment venue is seen as a sector that will continue to experience steady revenue growth.

Although the competition is currently stiff, there always seems to be room for operators who are reliable and provide good-quality service that most customers look for. Limousines serve as an elegant and comfortable means of transport, and these are used for a wide array of events and occasions, such as corporate parties, proms, weddings, bachelor parties, city tours and out-of-town excursions.

The Limo Rental Industry Has A Lot Of Potential Clients

According to current data from Limousine and Chauffeur magazine, the breakdown of potential limo rental service customers are in the following areas: hotel and resort clients, night-on-the-town transportation, corporate shuttling, weddings, funeral transport, proms, and other occasions. The business is usually broken down into two major aspects: Corporate/professional clients and occasional customers, and most rental firms specialize in either one or both.

Corporate customers span a wide range of businesses that use these services for ferrying their executives, clients and customers. Much of this service involves airport-to-hotel transportation, as well as shuttling clients to restaurants, theaters and other entertainment venues. Corporate clients can be at times, more demanding than the standard client. These people expect prompt and reliable service, particularly when the need suddenly arises.

Keeping Clients Satisfied Ensures A Successful Limo Rental Business

If you so wish to invest in this type of business, you need to do all you could to make your customers happy, and satisfied. Be prepared to do a great deal of cold-call selling to capture these lucrative accounts, which include corporations, law firms, investment firms and banks.

As the occasional customer usually celebrates some sort of event; whether it’s a birthday, anniversary, wedding, bachelor party, office party or prom, you need to be prepared to serve the needs of varied groups of people and events. Your advertising needs to focus on your ability and desire to make any kind of event feel special and memorable.

As with any type of business, you need to do a lot of research before you start operating. It is good to understand your competition, your target market, and the specific area you wish to operate. You also need to be creative in determining how you are going to make your service unique, and different, or better than the competition.

Once you’re in operation, you need to ensure that you can facilitate inquiries, handle different sales accounts, deliver professional service and provide information to your prospective clients on a 24-7 basis. Your customers also need to get their queries effectively answered, and place orders at their convenience, without having to let them wait in line either on site or on the phone. You also can build and enhance customer relationships by staying in touch with them via e-mail, or through opening an online website.

http://miamilimo.biz – Miami Limo

How I Leased a $60,000 Car For Only $111 a Month and Why I Think Dealer Leasing is Dumb

The rational behind leasing a car is simple; you basically rent the car for a period of time then drop it off when the lease expires without any obligation (generally if the car is clean) or further costs.

What you are doing is paying for the depreciation of the vehicle during the lease. So, if a car is new and worth $50,000 today and in 3 years it’s expected to be worth $30,000 then you as the lessee basically pay the depreciation of the car over the 3 years to the lessor and get a new car every 3 years.

Seems simple and smart, right? Wrong, I am going to show you a better way drive cars if you can raise a lump sum of money. For me it was obvious, I am in the business of raising lump sums of money to settle debt.

So a BMW M3 Cabriolet (convertible) is a gorgeous car, it’s a driver’s machine and is truly sublime. A few years ago, and after several years of very frugal living and driving cheap cars my accountant talked me into spending some money. And that was tough for him to do; after all he is the guy that told me cars are a colossal waste of money.

It was 2006 and I was looking for a 2003-4 M3. These cars were selling for $80,000+ brand new. I always buy used and private; for 3 reasons:

1) Let someone else pay the depreciation in the first couple of years

2) Dealers usually lie and just tick me off

3) You can usually negotiate a better price with private sellers.

In 2006 used M3 Cabs were selling for $50,000 – $60,000. A 2003 Imola red M3 Cab for $46,000, with low miles really caught my eye. It was cheaper then the rest and red was a rare colour on these cars; it looked stunning.

So I checked it out, drove it and was really impressed. It was my first real experience in a premium German car and I was sold hook, line and sinker.

There was a catch. It was a US car. No big deal right? Wrong, the car hadn’t sold for a reason. It scared buyers. The owner had imported it as a “salvage title” meaning it had been written off in the US. But he had paperwork (albeit dodgy looking but, I verified it) to show that in the State of New Jersey when are car is stolen and written off, and the vehicle later recovered it gets a “salvage title” because the owner was already paid out by the insurance company.

In other states a salvage title means the car was written off in an accident. Salvage titles can’t be sold in the US again. So it wasn’t in an accident like most people would normally believe and everything including the VIN checked out on the Carfax report. In fact the car was in flawless shape and found by authorities in a shipping crate ready to go across the Atlantic. It was sold at an auction by the insurance company to my seller.

So the next step was to negotiate a final price. I knew the car was up for sale for almost 6 weeks because I was following the used car ads. That told me the seller was having a difficult time unloading the car because of its history. So I told him, “regardless of the asking price, this car would be very tough for me to unload when I needed to get out of it”, and he knew it was true. I offered him $38,000 and after some negotiating we settled on $40,000.

I got a car everyone else was selling for $60,000 or more with lower miles (only 35,000 miles when I got it) for considerably less.

I enjoyed the car for about 36 months, put on another 30,000 miles and sold it for $36,000 (I fully disclosed the history to the buyer), my cost to carry the car for 3 years was only about $111/m in depreciation to drive a premium German automobile.

Comparable used cars were leasing for about $900/m with $5,000 down at the time I bought mine.

That’s how I like to buy cars. It’s easy and don’t be afraid of private sellers and cheap car ads, check them out; sometimes there is a good reason behind it and nothing really to worry about if you do a little homework and dig deeper.

Pros and Cons of Buy Here Pay Here Car Dealerships

Bad credit score may cause hassles for car buyers. BHPH car dealerships offer purchasers with bad credit score access to autos that they could not typically qualify for. Buy here pay here car dealerships will finance your car loan via their dealer. Instead of acquiring approved for a car loan via a lender, purchasers acquire and repay the loan via the buy here pay here car dealership.

There is nothing like the liberty and opportunity that having your own car gives you. For car purchasers with bad credit, BHPH car dealerships might be the only option. If banks have turned you down for a car loan checkout this website to find buy here pay here car dealerships near you. They know that low credit can stand in the way of getting a car, and they are here to help.

Hopes of owning a car can be ruined within instantly after many lenders have declined your car loan application. With the difficult fiscal times that we are upon us in the United States tons of car loan applications are rejected on a daily basis. The banks and finance companies use the credit scores to estimate whether an application is dependable to repay an auto loan. BHPH car dealerships can help high-quality persons who are having a challenging time. Banks and finance companies will not see beyond the credit score in an effort to help a person get a car.

Here are the pros and cons:

Pro: Buy here pay here car dealerships are readily accessible and increasing in popularity and are the quickest growing part of the auto sales market. They can found in all 50 states including: California, Florida, New York, Texas, Pennsylvania, and Illinois. Some cities with the most are: New York, Los Angeles, Miami, Houston, Atlanta, and Chicago have over a dozen buy here pay here car dealerships.

Pro: Buy here pay here car dealerships specialize in car buyers with bad credit. BHPH dealerships get the financial details out of the way first and aid buyers in determining how much you can practically afford to pay for a car. This is more advantageous than typical car dealerships that will first attempt to sell you a car only to discover later that you can’t get a car loan with bad credit.

Con: Buy here pay here dealerships are limiting in that the buyer can only pick from the cars that they have in inventory on at their dealership at that time. The amount of the buyer’s down payment will most likely determine the amount they are able to finance. You most likely have to choose a car that falls inside a particular price range.

Pro: Buy here pay here car dealerships will most likely pledge to finance buyers. This eliminates buyers the time of filling out car loan applications at dealers and being rejected over and over.

Con: Buy here pay here dealerships charge elevated interest rates than a bank would for a car loan. For purchasers with bad credit, BHPH dealerships could be their only source.

So is it an advantageous idea to obtain a car from BHPH dealerships? If you do have bad credit score and you need dependable transportation on a restricted finances then they are just want you need. If you do not have bad credit score buyers will find that a typical car dealer could be capable to offer you a more advantageous choice, a decreased interest rate, and a decreased monthly payment.

Evolution Of Used Car Market In India

State of the Market

With 3 million+ used car sales, India’s used car market has outpaced the new car market which could only manage about 2.5 million units. This puts the new car to used car sales ratio at about 1:1.3. While this ratio seems fairly optimistic for the industry, it’s still way behind the Western levels of 1:3 in the UK and US, and around 1:2.2 in Germany and other Western European economies.

However, the market has been aggregating a compound annual growth rate of 15-18% in the last five years. The CAGR is expected to shoot up to around 22-25% by 2018. Experts have pegged the ratio of new cars to used cars sales to become 1:2 by 2017-18. Sales of used cars are, therefore, likely to more than double in the next 5 years.

A research by CRISIL found that between 2008 and 2013, sales of used cars doubled to 2.6 million units leading to a fourfold increase in the size of the market to Rs. 520 billion. The report further estimated the sales of used cars to reach around 8 million by 2018 which will put the valuation of the used car market at Rs. 1.5 trillion. Whereas the sales of new cars are expected to reach around 4.2 million units.

Business Model

The market is made up of competitors with three distinct business models. The transaction parties include franchised and independent dealers who take on the financial risk of buying and selling cars. The transaction facilitators – online sales platforms and online matchmakers – depend on fees from enabling sales transactions. The information providers offer insights into pricing trends and details of the condition of specific cars.

Used cars are sold to end customers via these three channels. A majority of the transactions are managed by the private sellers themselves. The second major channel of transaction includes franchised dealers. Independent dealers and other online sales platform make up for the rest of the total sales.

Though the market is still heavily dominated by the unorganized players, the share of organized players has been on the rise. Growing at a compound annual growth rate of 40%, organized segment now accounts for about 18% of the total market and is expected to rise to around 25% by 2017-18.

Key Market Trends:

  • Changing Demand

A majority of the total automobile sales in India consist of 2 wheelers. Among this population, many people are looking to upgrade from a 2 wheeler to a 4 wheeler. Further there is a growing economic and social need among buyers in the age group 25-40 to own a car. These first time buyers and 2 wheeler owners looking to upgrade mainly make up for the demand in the used car market. With the increased availability in the number of used cars available and the increasing presence of organized players in the market, more buyers are likely to enter the market for used cars. Vehicle certification and car history reports, warranty and after sales support are going to bridge the earlier existing information asymmetry and are likely to be the key drivers behind the demand.

  • Changing supply

Average replacement cycles are falling. According to a survey, in 2006-07, buyers held onto their new cars for as long as 54 months (4.5 years). This fell to 48 months (4 years) in 2011-12 and is expected to fall down to 42 months (3.5 years) in 2016-17. This increase in the frequency of replacement will allow for an increase in the supply of used cars as old as 3-4 years. Also, with improvements in the car quality (resulting in a longer life span), demand for used cars is poised to increase in the near future.

  • More online transactions

Buyers of used cars are slowly but surely turning to the Internet to research and buy cars. Consumers are arriving at dealerships armed with more information about specific cars and a better understanding of market prices, and they are visiting fewer dealers before buying their chosen car. The rapidly increasing use of mobile devices is boosting this trend: More than 20 percent of all Web searches related to “used-cars” are now conducted on these devices. Traditional brick-and-mortar dealers will be forced to follow this audience online, perhaps offering used cars through online marketplaces that provide referrals to dealers with binding offers – a model already available in the United States.

  • Increased transparency

The availability of information on the Internet has already increased the efficiency of the used car market significantly, providing greater transparency into prices and even the condition of specific used cars. Growing use of online transaction platforms will only boost market efficiency further; indeed, digital intermediaries have the opportunity to shape the structure of the industry as their influence grows, accentuating competitive pressures and revealing the disparity between the most efficient buyers and sellers and the laggards.

  • Growing importance of convenience

With the advent of increased internet penetration and the continued distrust in the validity of claims of Independent dealers, more and more private sellers are looking for alternative- fast and hassle-free ways to sell their used cars. This trend will have a real impact on the used car market as private owners turn to newer online business models to sell their cars. Offering fast, guaranteed transactions, online buying platforms are particularly likely to benefit.

  • Growing market penetration

The vehicle ownership rate in India stands 18 per thousand people. At 2 per 100 people, this is one of the worst in the world. With the increasing GDP per capita and an increase in the percentage of rich households, the ownership rate is likely to change for better. This presents an incredible opportunity for OEMs to expand their production in India. In US, ownership rates are as high as 95% and around 60-70% in Western Europe.

FR44 Insurance in Florida: Common Questions With Complete Answers

When did the Florida FR44 insurance filing become effective? What are the requirements needed for one? Which type of policies qualify for compliance?

As of October 1, 2007, a person convicted of DUI in Florida is required to maintain increased limits of vehicle accident liability coverage. The minimum amounts are $100,000 per person, $300,000 per accident of Bodily Injury Liability and $50,000 of Property Damage Liability. A single combined limit of $300,000 is also acceptable. The liability must be provided by a Florida policy. This may be a car insurance policy or an operator’s one where there is no vehicle to insure. One that insures a vehicle with less than 3 years does not qualify because this type does not include Personal Injury Protection coverage (PIP).

The flexibility to comply with a variety of policy types, and as policyholder or additional driver, enables the convicted driver to secure a well suited one. For example, a youthful operator will often find a lower rate as an additional driver on their parents policy. In the past, another good option was insuring a scooter which might have been as little as $100.00 for the entire year. Unfortunately, Florida no longer allows a filing with this type.

Do all drivers with a Florida DUI require FR44 insurance?How long does the requirement remain in effect?

To clear a FR44 DUI case number for license reinstatement, a driver, receiving the infraction prior to November 1st 2014, is required to provide proof that increased vehicle liability insurance in the amount of 100/300/50k was in effect at the time of the offense date or they must purchase a FR44 policy for three years from the original suspension date. After November 1st 2014 all drivers convicted of a DUI will be required to purchase and maintain a FR44 policy, which cannot be cancelled, for three years from the reinstatement date of the DUI.

When can I reinstate my license after I purchase a policy?How is the Florida DMV notified that my FR44 requirement has been satisfied? Can I receive the FR44 certificate at point of sale?

The FR44 form (certificate), is submitted by the company to Florida’s Bureau of Financial Responsibility. As required by law, they are transmitted electronically within 15 days after beginning. Companies typically transmit to the bureau at point of sale, and the DMV database will update within 24 to 48 hours allowing for license reinstatement.

Some companies, will generate a “hard copy” certificate at point of sale which can then be combined with proof of insurance and faxed to a local DMV office, from the agency or company with an identifying cover page. This is the fastest way a convicted driver can have their license reinstated.

Since companies electronically send the FR44 certificate to the State, it takes a special request to have one issued directly to the policyholder. It is usually typed, and then faxed or emailed, and typically takes up to 2 hours to get done. If you are in a hurry, find out before you buy, or even before you get a rate quote, if a certificate would be immediately available.

How much will this cost?What is the least expensive way?Is there a filing fee and reinstatement fee in addition?

There is a $25.00 filing fee for everyone. A license reinstatement fee is required for drivers that did not have increased liability limits of 100/300/50k on their policy at the time of the DUI. However, the overall cost is determined by a host of variables that are unique to each person (location, age, history, vehicle type etc.). The least expensive way to secure a FR44 insurance policy is with a scooter or moped because these types of vehicles inflict little damage when involved in an accident. Also, their liability coverage, unlike car and truck policies, does not transfer to any other vehicle the policyholder may be driving. The cost for such a policy typically ranges from $100.00 to $400.00 for the entire year. This lower cost option is not available for drivers that require an interlock device. Here again this option is no longer allowable.

Can I cancel?Is the insurance company allowed to cancel?If I cancel can I replace it with another one?

As of May 4th 2012 all policies with a Florida FR44 filing are not allowed to be cancelled. Companies may only cancel during the first 30 days while determining eligibility. Naturally, there are many legitimate reasons for cancelling a policy such as, moving to another state, selling your vehicle, getting married, etc., and there is a way to cancel these policies. An endorsement to remove the FR44 filing from an existing policy can be submitted, and then that policy can be cancelled. Keep in mind that if the FR44 requirement is still in effect, the cancelled policy must be replaced or the driver license will be suspended. When canceling, you may be asked to provide a recorded sworn statement indicating your reason and how you intend to continue compliance. Naturally, when your compliance period ends during the policy period, all the restrictions may be removed from that policy.

Can I get a monthly payment plan?Does the State of Florida require full payment? Can I have more than one policy?

Because they cannot be cancelled, companies will require payment in full. Unlike the canceling provision, requiring payment in full is not a state mandate. Since companies are not at liberty to cancel a policy for non-payment, they generally will not offer payment plans. However, there are a few, in limited circumstances, that will allow a payment plan. One recently began to offer installment payment plans for all their renewing policies. Keep in mind companies provide a substantial discount when paying in full and the FR44 requirement does not eliminate that discount. There can only be one filing per driver, however, a driver can have more than one policy and this creates additional flexibility.

When will my FR44 requirement no longer be needed? How can I contact the Florida Department of Motor Vehicles?

The best way to find out is to contact the Florida Department of Motor Vehicles and have them tell you the exact date your requirement ends. I recommend contacting them by email at https://www3.flhsmv.gov/DDL/CQS/ so you have their response in writing. When you are within 60 days of ending the requirement you may carry the 100/300/50 liability without having to actually file and you will be considered in compliance. This option can be particularly helpful when starting a new policy as payment plans, driver exclusions, and all other options can be exercised.

Make Some Easy Money by Buying a Car For $1000 Bucks and Parting it Out

Lots of people turn to cars under $1000 bucks looking save a buck or two. Here is a quick guide on how to make some cash (that you can use to buy more rusty boxes on wheels of course)

Plain and simple part cars out.

Step 1. Buy a car. This is pretty much the most crucial step. If you are actually doing this to make money and not just salvaging that blown up buick sitting in your driveway than you need to find a car that people want to buy parts for. eBay is pretty much your friend here and my suggested avenue for selling most parts. In the past I have watched people make money from a variety of cars (my roommate used to finance his workshop with parted out cars) One in particular was a 1994 Honda Accord. Thats right you don’t need to buy a 1939 Alfa Romeo (although that would be sweet) or anything super rare to get good money for parts.

Often times finding a car that is pretty common can be a good thing but be sure to check eBay for the prices certain parts are going for before hand and let that be your guide in making your purchase. Now when it comes to buying the car usually the ones that don’t run will be your best deals and you may even get a freebie if your lucky. (few people want dead cars in their driveway) Obviously the less you pay the more you profit.

Step 2. Tear it apart. The key here is research and time management. Everybody wants to pull the engine and trans etc., but often times it may not even be worth it. Check out eBay or where ever you plan on selling and ask yourself is what these parts are selling for worth my time? Would I actually want to crate and ship this? Is anybody actually bidding on this crap? All good questions that need answers. Honestly it tends to be the nickel and dime parts that can really make you some money. Shifters, speedometers, sensors, mirrors, sun-visors, etc. these parts take seconds to remove and if they are in good shape people are often willing to pay a pretty penny for them, because the only other option for parts like these tends to be the dealers who charge an arm and a leg.

Step 3. Sell The Parts. Once you have determined what you want to sell and pulled the stuff off its time to start selling. I like eBay but swap meets, forums, and other sources may work better for you. If you have done your research you know where to find the people who see value in the parts you have pulled.

Step 4. Scrap the rest. Always factor in that you can prolly get $100-$300 bucks for the rest of the pile at the scrap yard. Usually you will want to haul it there yourself and will probably need to pull the tires and gas tank. I would even consider it a good rule of thumb to try and not pay more for the car than you can scrap it for. This helps you avoid any kind of loss.

And there you have it. Four easy steps to make some quick money and make your neighbors hate you.

A History of Safety

Throughout history, the safety and health movement has been impacted by legislation. In the following safety and health chronology, noteworthy events, individuals, and legislative action are set forth to illustrate the theme that the safety professional/practitioner is and has been a significant part of those preventive experiences making up the story of life.

The Ancient Chinese (c 2,500 BC) spread the risk of loss by placing 1/6 of their harvest on each of six boats traveling to the market.

Hammurabi (c 2,000 BC), ruler of Babylon, was responsible for the Code of Hammurabi, part of which bears resemblance to today’s workers’ compensation laws.

Ancient Egyptians (as early as 1600 BC) recognized the hazards of breathing the fumes produced by melting silver and gold.

Hippocrates (c 460-c 377 BC), the father of contemporary medicine, established a link between the respiratory problems of Greek stonecutters and the rock dust surrounding them.

In ancient Rome, the few slaves who survived the dangerous task of ship launching were given their freedom.

In 1601, the first English statute on “assurance” (an earlier term for insurance) was enacted. This statute covered marine risks.

In 1667, the Great Fire of London (September 2-7, 4666), caused the first English fire insurance laws to be enacted.

In 1700, Bernardino Ramazzini, an Italian physician, published the first thesis attempting to prove the connections between occupation and disease.

In 1730, Benjamin Franklin organized the first fire-fighting company in the United States as well as detecting lead poisoning symptoms with Dr. Evans.

In 1775, English doctors discovered that chimney sweeps, who were exposed to coal tar residues in their daily work, showed a higher incidence of cancer than did the general population.

In 1792, the first charter to write marine and fire insurance was granted in the United States.

In 1812, the Embargo of the War of 1812 spurred the development of the New England textile industry and the founding of factory mutual companies. These early insurance companies inspected properties for hazards and suggested loss control and prevention methods in order to secure low rates for their policyholders.

In 1864, The Pennsylvania Mine Safety Act (PMSA) was passed into law.

In 1864, North America’s first accident insurance policy was issued.

In 1867, the state of Massachusetts instituted the first government-sponsored factory inspection program.

In 1877, the state of Massachusetts passed a law requiring guarding for dangerous machinery, and took authority for enforcement of factory inspection programs.

In 1878, the first recorded call by a labor organization for federal occupational safety and health law is heard.

In 1896, an association to prevent fires and write codes and standards, the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), was founded.

In 1902, the state of Maryland passed the first workers’ compensation law.

In 1904, the first attempt by a state government to force employers to compensate their employees for on-the-job injuries was overturned when the Supreme Court declared Maryland’s workers’ compensation law to be unconstitutional.

On March 21, 1911, in the Asch Building in New York City, nearly 150 women and young girls died in the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire because of locked fire exits and inadequate fire extinguishing systems. A major turning point in history, this fire changed regulation by the government and laws instituted to protect workers.

In 1911, a professional, technical organization responsible for developing safety codes for boilers and elevators, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) was founded. A17 Safety Code was published.

1911-1915, During this five-year period, 30 states passed workers’ compensation laws.

In October 14, 1911, the American Society of Safety Engineers (ASSE) was founded in New York City. Originally named the United Society of Casualty Inspectors. The ASSE was dedicated to the development of accident prevention techniques, and to the advancement of safety engineering as a profession.

California Railroad Commission, now known as the California Public Utilities Commission, ws created by constitutional amendment to oversee rail safety, including the safety of highway/rail crossings.

In 1912, a group of engineers representing insurance companies, industry, and government met in Milwaukee to exchange data on accident prevention. The organization formed at this meeting was to become the National Safety Council (NSC). (Today, the NSC carries on major safety campaigns for the general public, as well as assists industry in the development of safety promotion programs.)

In 1916, the Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of state workers’ compensation laws.

In 1918, the American Standards Association was founded. Responsible for the development of many voluntary safety standards, some of which are referenced into laws, today, it is now called the American National Standards Institute [ANSI].

In 1931 the Uniform Traffic Code was established because of the increase in speed and volume of motor vehicle traffic and accidents. The code consists of four separate acts: motor vehicle registration, driver licensing, automobile anti-theft and uniform traffic regulations.

In 1936, Frances Perkins, Secretary of Labor, called for a federal occupational safety and health law. This action came a full 58 years after organized labor’s first recorded request for a law of this nature.

In 1936, the Walsh-Healey (Public Contracts) Act passed. This law required that all federal contracts be fulfilled in a healthful and safe working environment.

By 1948, all states (48 at the time) now had workers’ compensation laws.

In 1952, Coal Mine Safety Act (CMSA) was passed into law.

In 1960, specific safety standards were promulgated for the Walsh-Healey Act.

On Jan 3, 1961, an accident at an experimental nuclear reactor at a federal installation near Idaho Falls, ID kills three workers. These were the first deaths in U.S. nuclear reactor operations.

In 1966, the Metal and Nonmetallic Mines Safety Act (MNMSA) was passed.

In 1966, the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and its sections, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), were established.

In 1968, President Lyndon Johnson called for a federal occupational safety and health law.

In 1969, the Construction Safety Act (CSA) was passed.

In 1969, the Board of Certified Safety Professionals (BCSP) was established. This organization certifies practitioners in the safety profession.

In 1970, President Richard Nixon signed into law the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA), thus creating the OSHA administration and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).

In 1970, on January 1, the National Environmental Policy Act, (NEPA) was signed. This provided a national charter for protecting and improving the environment and created the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

On May 29, 1971, the firast OSHA standards were adopted to provide a baseline for safety and health protection in American workplaces.

In 1972, the Consumers Product Safety Act (CPSA) was signed into law.

In 1976, The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) passed and became the instrument by which the management of hazardous waste is regulated.

In 1980, to address the issues of hazardous waste management, the Pollution Liability Insurance Association (PLIA) was formed.

Jan 16, 1981 OSHA updates business electrical standards to simplify compliance and adopt a performance approach.

1991 North Carolina Plant Fire kills 25 workers and 49 injured at the Imperial Chicken processing plant in Hamlet NC. The employees were trapped inside due to padlocked doors meant to keep vandals away.

Sep 11, 2001, 2886 work related fatalities including 537 rescue workers, resulted from terrorist attacks on the NY City World Trade Center, at the Pentagon, an on the planes that crashed.

How to Arrange Bad Credit Motorcycle Loans

The Need for Bad Credit Motorcycle Financing

For those who have poor credit, motorcycle financing can be can be difficult (but not impossible) to arrange because, while car/motorcycle dealerships with in-house motor-cycle loans do exist, it is tough most times to find the brand, style and color that you are interested in. You have to choose from a small number of bikes and settle for what you can find on the lot. In addition, small local dealers will insist on a huge down payment in order to get into one of their motorcycle loan.

Where to Look For Bad Credit Motorcycle Loans?

So what is the best place for people to begin their search for bad credit motor bike financing? Besides small local dealerships that may have a few motor bikes on the lot, poor credit can limit your options. The problem seems to be that most small local dealerships do not have very many bikes on the lot, and if they do you will be lucky to find one that interests you, and that mainstream full-blown motorcycle dealerships usually do not want to issue in-house bad credit motorcycle loans. Nevertheless, there are a few other options for getting poor credit motorcycle financing. The first step is to try to qualify for conventional motor-cycle finance at a motorcycle dealership. That begins by knowing what your credit score is.

How bad is Your Credit Score Really?

The fact that you have low credit at all may not be the deciding factor when a dealership considers bad credit motorcycle loans. Of course financing a motor cycle will depend on your credit score, but more importantly, it will depend on your recent credit history. If you have had poor credit items added to your credit history recently, in the past few months, then this will more negatively affect your credit score and your ability to secure low credit motorcycle financing. Bad credit items from the past, from a year or more back do not count nearly as much as recent items. If you do have any bad credit items in the past year then you should consider trying to get those items removed before you apply for your bad credit motorcycle finance. In general, if you have the cash in hand when calling your creditors, then you have a very good chance at getting the debt removed completely from your credit history.

How Your Income Factors in to Bad Credit Motorcycle Financing

Another item, which may affect your ability to qualify for poor credit motorcycle financing, is your income. The higher your income is, the less important your credit score will be to the dealership when considering your motorcycle finance, whether it is through a (BHPH) “Buy Here Pay Here” local small car lot, or through a fully fledged motorcycle dealership, because you will present a much lower risk to the dealer if they know that you have the income to make your payment and that you are not struggling with paying your bills. Also, make sure that your debt to income ratio is low enough. Your debt to income ratio is the amount of monthly debt that you have each month as opposed to your monthly gross income. It should be right around 30 percent or lower, or 35 percent maximum. If your debt to income ratio is higher, such as around fifty percent, you may have a hard time getting motorcycle loans, even if you have a decent credit history.