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Replacing Linkage Pins and Bushes on Mini Excavator – Part One

Doing the necessary checks

It is critical to replace the linkage pins and bushes before they wear out. If you do not do this the structure of the mini excavator will also wear down and this is a much more costly problem to fix, in comparison to the cost of the pins and bushes which are relatively cheap to replace. It would be unhealthy for your business to let your excavator machine wear down when this can be avoided by making small repairs.

When you are doing this maintenance to your mini excavator, you first of all need to identify the parts that need replacing. To do this, you need to check all the joints to see if there are any excess play and movement in them. There should not be any movement side-to-side, and the pins should not rattle in the joint. When you have done these checks you should now have a list of the pins and bushes that you require. Look for a reputable supplier for these parts.

It is important that you make sure that the parts you have purchased are properly hardened, this means that both the pins and bushes have been heat treated in order to make them hard wearing so that they last longer. Pins and bushes are subjected to a lot of strain so you do not want these parts breaking early or wearing too fast. You will find that some suppliers will offer you un-hardened pins which are often slightly cheaper than hardened ones. However, you should avoid purchasing these parts because they will wear very fast and cause problems later on.

Replacing the pins

Once you have all the parts that you require, you need to start replacing them.

  1. Before you fit the new pins and bushes you need to remove the existing ones that need replacing.
  2. The pins should simply un-bolt and pull out. Be aware however that when you are taking out the pins which hold the excavator arm into place, you may need somebody to help you secure it. Perhaps you may even need a forklift, overhead crane or another excavator to support the arm as you take it apart.

Removing the bushes and replacing them is more difficult than the pins. For our guide on how to do this read our ‘Replacing Linkage Pins and Bushes on Mini Excavators- Part Two’ article. This will support you when replacing them tricky bushes.

LPG Subsidies: Pros and Cons

Recently some of us were invited by IOC on SMS to be a part of the nation building process by giving up our subsidies on LPG. This follows the appeal of our PM to the affluent to do the same. A bold request in a highly price sensitive country and on an even more politically sensitive subject.

The Govt and Oil Marketing Companies (OMCs) have economic reasons for doing so. Let’s take a look at some of the numbers here. The total under recoveries of OMCs as of FY14 is a whopping $24billion out of which LPG accounts for 33%. In FY 16 alone the subsidy is around $6.5billion So then should we eliminate this subsidy?

Fuel subsidies were part of the socialist policies of our Government post-Independence to protect consumer interests against volatile price movements. Another agenda was to help the people especially in the villages to upgrade from firewood and kerosene to a cleaner fuel. However over the years the biggest challenge of the policy makers has been to ensure that subsidies reached the targeted segment. Black marketing, underground refills and subsidy leakages are perhaps the biggest negatives of this policy. The misuse of domestic subsidized cylinders for commercial purposes as in hotels and hazardous trends like using it in automobiles and refilling of gas lanterns prevailed till recently inspite of the fact that it is a non-bailable offence in India.

Implementation of recommendations to address these issues is by itself a task as there are a lot of socio economic factors involved. Capping of Cylinders per connection and introduction of Direct transfer Benefit Schemes (DBT) are some steps which aim at eliminating these malpractices.

Another major drawback has been the benefits not reaching the poor. A statistic reveals that more than 50% of the LPG subsidy is received by the richest 30% of Indian population, whereas the poorest 30% receive a meagre 15% of the total subsidy disbursed.

So that brings us back to the question of whether we need to continue with subsidy Raj. The middle income salaried class would answer in the affirmative. For this section of the society already burdened with taxes and EMIs a little relief via cooking fuel subsidy is always welcome. In certain metros people have the option of choosing from other alternative cooking fuels which are cheaper.

The rural poor are the ones who would benefit the most if these schemes are made available to them. Greater penetration and efficient distribution in these areas where firewood and kerosene are still used would help gain acceptance of LPG as an alternative. Transition into a less polluting fuel also has its health benefits. DBT would probably eliminate the misuse of the funds.

Fine tuning of the structure like pricing against affordability as recommended by CEEW coupled with a wider distribution network to reach the remotest of villages is needed. Diversion of savings on account of people opting out of subsidized LPG to benefit the truly needy. Currently around 3 lakh consumers have heeded to the request and have opted out of the Subsidy Scheme. A small number, but nevertheless a big step in the right direction. When the benefits of policies reach the poorest sections of the country the true process of Nation building has begun.

Keys and Their Importance

Getting most of the press, quite a large number of articles and essays have been written about the lock when focusing on the world of the locksmith, but surprisingly not very many have been written in regards to keys. Yes a locksmith works with all types of locks and tools, hardware and other security devices but a very significant part of a locksmiths job pertains to keys as well.

Without the key the lock is merely a device unable to open or close for its owner. Most locks are stationary objects installed into the various kinds of doors that house them, padlocks, while having the ability to be mobile are also quite docile in nature, too.

The current and higher quality automobiles keys contain features that allow for remote access, remote ignition starting, they can tell a car if it is OK to start and if it’s not the correct key the car will not let the engine or fuel pump work.

While there are some amazing features on the higher end vehicle keys, most modern cars have the lock and unlock feature as well as an auto alarm quality that alerts others that either the car or owner is in need. While security alarm doors will react when opened, it requires the door to be manipulated. The alarm system activated from a key can work from distances or nearby. Can your lock or its hardware do that?

Master key systems are not called master key systems for no reason at all. It is the lock and its cylinder that has to be serviced and set for one key only to act as its master key and not the other way around. It is not a master lock system as mentioned it is the key that is important here.

There are many moments when someone will ask themselves if they locked their doors at home or their vehicles doors and common sense dictates that even if the door is unlocked it is closed. Closed doors on any home, building or car usually deters those seeking to illegally gain entrance as most assume that they are locked, however when having a moment of uncertainty and fumbling through pockets and handbags searching for keys this brings on the more nerve wracking of scenarios in that lost keys, especially those without copies, completely deny one the ability to not only get in one place, but multiple places.

The tampered with or broken into lock are serious but loss of keys are a more prevalent occurrence and brings on a feeling of dread. When a key breaks or any loss occurs the best person to call is a locksmith as they have the appropriate tools and know how to get you back in the running with duplicates.

A thief does not break into a key, a thief breaks into a lock. Someone attempting to gain access doesn’t pick or break a key as they do a door or lock. When putting all of this into consideration, perhaps the key deserves a little more credit and thought than it is currently being given.

What Is Considered A Junk Car?

The term is thrown around quite often, you hear it all the time in conversations or in anger for times when a car is not performing as well as it should, but what is actually considered a junk car? Many people picture an orange rusty old little car sitting on a lawn or in the driveway, I mean that was the first thing that used to come to my mind before I became so fondly familiar with this field. It never occurred to me that anything beyond that mental picture could be called, and let alone considered a junk car. Just some old parted out “thing” that had no purpose for anyone whatsoever, see I still can’t get that image out of my head, but in many peoples eyes a car can be considered junk because of numerous different reasons or conditions.

Besides the image ingrained in my mind from way, way back when, a car that simply doesn’t run anymore is considered junk by many as well. You could probably just imagine a person kicking the tire of their car because it just stopped working in the middle of a highway. It’s the car on the side of the road because the transmission started grinding and just broke down, or the radiator just blew because something caused the car to overheat, or the car in the driveway for some odd reason that just doesn’t seem to want to start. Also cars that have been in accidents can be considered junk cars too, especially when they appear to be beyond repair.

Generally, any car that has little or no value to its owner is considered a junk car. Whether the car won’t run, got wrecked in an accident, or the cost to fix a broken down car exceeds the owners perceived value of the car, it is considered to be a junk or salvage car. Besides peoples perceptions, many states have the power the declare a car junk, salvaged, rebuilt, etc as well. Normally this happens after a car has been in an accident and was sold by an insurance company to a dealer because the total amount of damage and cost for repairs exceeded 75% of the current value of the vehicle. Most people don’t know this, but when a car is bought from insurance companies it is considered totaled, and most if not all states will be declared junk and be branded with a junked, salvage, or rebuilt title, and to get a car with this type of title registered in many states requires a separate anti-theft inspection on top of all other state requirements which is not a fun task at all.

I hope you found this article useful and have discovered how many people, businesses, and even states can perceive a vehicle as being junk, salvaged, or rebuilt.

The Significance Of The Number 25

I’ve always had this special feeling about this number twenty-five since my mid teens and i’ve always wondered why as well. But not anymore.

During my mid teens, I had to take a bus service to classes everyday and I even have it memorised, every single bus’s license plate number which I took to classes for two yrs of my life. And yes! That bus service was 25! Is it coincidental? I don’t know…

That was just my first affinity with that number and I always felt like its a friend to me, maybe even a guide to me later on in my life and I’m right.

When I was 25 yrs old – yes, the second time this number came up again; I began to think about all the things that happened to me from birth till 25 yrs of age. And I came up with The Question, which is the essence of this article.

For me, having lived through a divorce, moved houses for 3 times in 4 yrs; plus getting ready for adulthood and etc, at only the age of 25 has really taken its toll on me. And I wondered if I can take anymore of these or worse things that can happen in life.

The Million-Dollar Question: What are my thoughts and feelings after having lived through a quarter of a century? And how am I going to live the next 1 or 2 quarters of your life?

When this Question came into my mind, man I was really blown away by its wisdom! Its a very broad question and yet if you really think through it wisely, you begin to really think about your own life – everything about you from birth till the age of 25.

For me its especially inspiring just for the simple reason of health, among other reasons as well. When you lived till 25 yrs of age, you are still healthy, but how about the next quarter when you reach 50? And after that, if you can reach 75, you are very health-conscious.

How many 25 yrs do you have in this lifetime? And how are you going to live the next 2 quarters?

Another thing about this number 25 is in terms of numerology. In recent years I’ve picked up numerology and no matter which variations that I learned, be it Indian numerology, Chinese feng shui, birth date analysis; or 52 cards of Destiny using normal poker cards, the number Seven is the most spiritual number in any numbers system that I’ve learned so far.

How do you get the number 7 from 25? Easy, just add 2 and 5 together to get a single number. Also, number 7 also coincide with The Holy Bible where it’s recorded that God created everything in SEVEN days.

Yet another thing about this number is legacy. Do you want to leave a legacy like William Shakespeare whom everyone knows his poems even centuries later, or do you want life to just pass you by?

Being a Chinese, I love Romance of The Three Kingdoms true war accounts being documented and to cut a long story short, 1 of the rulers of that era only lived till the age of 70- 5 yrs short of the 3rd 25th quarter. But during that war era, its considered a blessing to live to the age of 70 because most of the people in that era died in the battlefield.

Even though that ruler, Sun Quan, only lived till age 70, but his legacy of protecting his territory will always be in the Three Kingdoms History book, for all people who are interested in gaining new knowledge to read and learn – even MILLENIUMS later!

That is what true legacy is about. Everyone will have at least 2 25-yr quarters in this lifetime, unless accidents or anything bad happen, and its about how you use this 2 to 3 25-yr quarters to create a legacy you want to leave behind when you are gone from planet earth.

True measure of a legacy begins when one leaves this world…

Do you want to use this lifetime of only three 25-yr quarters, and if you are really very health-conscious, four 25-yr quarters, to leave a legacy behind, or do you choose to let this lifetime to just pass you by? You decide…

I’ll write The Million-Dollar Question here again as a parting question for you to think about, be true about your feelings and you’ll have a lot to think about till my next article…

The Million-Dollar Question: What are my thoughts and feelings after having lived through a quarter of a century? And how am I going to live the next 1 or 2 quarters of your life?

Advantages and Importance of Alloy Wheels

Alloy Wheels or Alloys are definitely “in” these days. Those bling-bling wheels you see on most vehicles today are all alloy wheels and they are gaining more fans and popularity everyday.

So what exactly are alloy wheels and how are they different from normal wheels? Are they better than normal wheels?

These are the types of questions I intend to answer in this article.

Alloy Wheels perform the same function in automobiles as the normal steel ones but they have certain added features that make them different and arguably better.

Compared to wheels made of steel, alloy wheels are composed of aluminum or magnesium alloys making them stronger and durable, lighter in weight, better in performance and most importantly, stylish. These wheels are manufactured either by the process of casting or by forging of metal alloys.

Forged alloy wheels are lighter and much more durable than cast alloys but they are a little hard on the pocket. These wheels are usually the preferred choice for high-performance sports cars but that does not mean you can’t fit them on any other car. Comparatively, cast aluminum alloys are heavier but they are cheaper and yet have almost the same styling as that of forged alloys.

There is however another type of stylish wheels called Mag-Wheels. Magnesium alloys or mag-wheels are whole magnesium cast or forged wheels used in racing cars as they are the lightest wheels available. Mag-wheels are high on performance as well as on styling.

Unmatched style is probably the main reason why most people now prefer alloy wheels for their vehicle. There is no doubt that alloys make the vehicle look posh and increase its cosmetic appeal but there are two other definite advantages of fitting them in your car instead of the normal steel wheels:

  • Alloy wheels are lighter, that means your vehicle has less unsprung mass. This means your vehicle handles better and there is improved road grip on most terrains. A lighter vehicle will obviously perform better on the mileage count as well.
  • They are also good in terms of balancing. Your vehicle balances well reducing stress on other parts of your car like the suspension and the axles.

Besides that, did we discuss about the style that a set of alloys can add to your vehicle?

You no longer require those fuzzy hub-caps and you can definitely avoid displaying those ugly looking steel rims. No matter how elegant your car looks, if the wheels are not up to the mark, it may be a case of “bride without the ornaments”. And indeed, wheels are ornaments, the ones to be proudly displayed. Alloy wheels maintain their luster for years (if maintained properly) and shine with that metal-chrome finish, enough to make your neighbors burn with envy.

A fact worth considering is that used alloy wheels and rims are available in the market at one-third the price of brand new ones. You get the style and features of alloys without spending much.

With all this information at hand, I am sure you are equipped to search for the best set of wheels for your car and tread the roads in style.

James Rodham

How to Get Hard Nails – Turn Split Nails and Brittle Nails Into Strong Nails

One of the most common fingernail problems is split nails, brittle nails or cracked nails. You can strengthen your nails with a very simple method. It’s easy, inexpensive and just takes minutes each day.

Several years ago I owned a flower shop. I was the owner for 11 years. During that time I had a staff of five, but I did all phases of the business. When you are the owner, you need to know how to do everything – because at some point you WILL have to do everything.

Within a few months my nails had deteriorated from what were really tough, strong nails, to split and brittle nails. As a florist, my hands were constantly wet. Whether cleaning flowers, designing arrangements, washing floral buckets or just cleaning the shop my hands were in water. I had to resort to having acrylic nails applied to protect my real nails. This, of course, had it’s advantages. Not only did my nails look pretty, but I had to get away from my business every 10 days to take care of my brittle nails. And, of course, now I had strong nails. Well actually my nails appeared strong, but they were in actuality deteriorating and turning into even more brittle nails. Partly from the acrylic process, and partly from all the water.

When I sold my shop I removed the acrylic nails and found I had extremely thin nails – very brittle nails. I tried everything. Special nail polish, special nail creams that promised to strengthen my nails. Nothing worked.

Thank God I have a fantastic dermatologist who gave me a ‘prescription’ to strengthen my nails – and guaranteed it would work. And it did. Within three months I had no more brittle nails. My once split nails were almost back to my original hard-as-nails, strong nails. And they just got stronger as they grew. That took about a year. But now I once again have very strong nails and am able to do gardening without fear of breaking my nails.

OK – here’s the prescription to get rid of those brittle nails and get strong nails.

1. Take off all that nail polish … and leave it off. The polish remover is a killer for your nails. And the nail polish doesn’t allow your nails to breath.

2. Get a bottle of Biotin (also known as Vitamin H or B) – the lowest dose and the smallest quantity. Take one a day until gone (probably 30 days) – and then no more!!!

3. Wear rubber gloves when performing household chores. Try not to have your hands in water too long. Repeated wetting and drying causes nails to dry out, resulting in brittle and split nails.

4. Get some hoof dressing. Yes, for horses hoofs. You will only need a little bit. The brand I use is Hoof-Alive, Non-irritating Natural Hoof Dressing. Believe it or not – this works. Just apply a little bit of it to each nail – rub it in. Morning and night. As nails strengthen – you will be able to just use it nightly. Then just on occasion. It’s pretty sticky upon first application, but it works its way into your nails. I used to apply it at night just as I got into bed, and then in the morning just before getting into my car to go to work. By the time I got to work (in 15 – 20 minutes) I no longer had sticky fingers.

If you can’t find a store that sells horse or barn yard related products in your area, you can find it at Amazon.com. I guess just about everything can be purchased through them. When I purchased my Hoof Alive in Malibu, California about 10 years ago, the cost was around $10 for a 4 oz jar. That’s a lifetime supply. The Amazon cost is around $6, but the shipping is over $7. As I was researching for this article, I found most other online stores are selling Hoof Alive for around $15 plus shipping.

Another tip – not related to strengthening nails. Bag Balm – for cow tits, is also available at the same places as hoof balm. And guess what? Bag Balm is fantastic for your lips. Once again, another tip from my dermatologist. I actually have seen the green tin of Bag Balm in my local drug store chain.

I’m certain that in about a month your brittle nails will be turning into the strong nails you desire if you follow these four steps. Each month you should see marked improvement as your nails strengthen. And then in about four months you will have the strong nails you desire.

Want to have strong nails and get rid of those split, brittle nails … It Can Be Done.

Micro Reality Racing: What Is All the Excitement About Micro Reality Stock Car Racing?

Have you ever been at a fair, festival, company picnic, or other indoor or outdoor gathering of people and seen a huge racetrack that is about the size of a two car garage? Did this racetrack have a huge crowd of people around it screaming their lungs out with excitement? Perhaps this racetrack was under the canopy of a huge inflatable tent with a checkered flag design on top? When you moved in closer to see what the excitement was all about, did you find four to six 1/10th scale Sprint Cup Replica NASCAR cars being driven by remote control from full-sized steering wheels? If so, then what you have witnessed is Micro Reality Racing action. Micro Reality Stock Car Racing is an attraction that has been around for about 15 years and it has quickly swept the nation as one of the most addictive amusements for kids ages 3 to 83. It was invented in Atlantic, Iowa, by three brothers known as the Namanny Brothers. They took a great money-making idea that they invented and decided to mass produce it so that other entrepreneurs could have the opportunity to create a great part-time or full-time income providing racing excitement to patrons at public and private gatherings of lots of people.

There are different formats that a Micro Reality event may have. The three main options are pay-per-play, private event rental, and fundraiser. A pay-per-play event is one where the Micro Reality Racing business operates as a vendor, sets up the track in a public place, and charges each individual racer to pick a car and race for either a set amount of time or a set amount of laps. A typical race would be between 2 and 3 minutes or 12 to 15 laps. A typical charge to race would be between 3 dollars and 5 dollars, depending on the type of event, the region, and the demographics of the crowd. Sometimes vendors will offer multi-race discounts, such as two races for 5 dollars. Typical venues for pay-per-play events are fairs, festivals, shopping malls, car shows and carnivals. The main drawback to this type of event is that the racing revenue is dependent on several factors, such as weather, location, and crowd turnout. Although the potential is there to make a significant amount of income from events lasting anywhere from 2 to 14 days, there is also the possibility of losing money, in the event that the revenue does not exceed the space rental, fuel, lodging, insurance, payments to helpers, food, and other expenses the business will encounter.

A private rental is when the Micro Reality Stock Car Racing track is hired out by a party planner or event coordinator to appear at a specific time and place to offer the patrons of the event unlimited racing for the duration of the event. Instead of being paid per race by the event patrons, the Micro Reality business is paid by the organizers of the event or by the event coordinator to provide unlimited racing for an agreed upon number of hours. This type of arrangement is better for the Micro Reality Racing business owner, as the money is guaranteed and he is usually paid an up-front deposit of 50%, with the balance being paid at the conclusion of the event. With a satisfied event coordinator, the Micro Reality track is guaranteed repeat business for years, if the event is annual. The event planner will also schedule a well-run operation for other functions they have planned throughout the year. There is also a good potential for referrals to other event coordinators. The types of events that private rentals are used for are birthday parties, corporate hospitality events, company picnics, team building retreats and church outings.

A fund-raiser is similar to a pay-per-play event, but there is usually a revenue share between the Micro Reality Stock Car Racing business and the event coordinators. The revenue share will be anywhere from a 90/10 split up to a 50/50 split. At this type of event, sometimes the track owner and event coordinators will agree to use a ticket system so the revenue can be tracked.

A Micro Reality Racing System consists of 18 modular track sections that are similar to folding tables with only two legs. There are twelve 15 degree Curved sections and six straight sections. The track can be configured up to 9 different layouts, anything from a small 10′ x 10′ circle all the way up to a 25′ by 30′ Indianapolis Brickyard layout. There are also various oval, superspeedway oval, and asymmetric layouts that can be set up. The cars are adorned with replica NASCAR paint schemes, and usually between four and six cars are raced at one time. The drivers operate the vehicles from behind full-sized steering consoles that are wired with radio controls on the inside. Most successful track owners also track laps with a digital lap counter. Some vendors use a computer and lap counting software which displays race statistics on an LCD monitor.

There are many different ways that a Micro Reality Stock Car Racing system can entertain the crowd at your next event. Although there are many variations in events and venues, the one thing that will be consistent among them all, is the high-level excitement in the crowd and the Micro Reality Racing participants.

Awesome Check Engine Light – 2002 Toyota Tundra Troubleshooting Techniques!

When you troubleshoot the check engine light of a 2002 Toyota Tundra, approach it by using an OBD2 scanner which is designated for this vehicle. On most generic scanner, it can be used on most brands of vehicles and if you don’t specify if to be good for this 2002 Toyota Tundra, you might not get the right fault codes.

To fix the 2002 Toyota Tundra fault codes, please remember the following:

1.) The diagnostic connector for this vehicle is located on the right side of the steering column, below the instrument panel.

2.) This vehicle model uses a two-trip detection analysis in which the fault code stored in the memory will not be flashed in the dash panel. Instead, it will be flashed only on the 2nd time the fault code is detected. This usually happens when you are using a generic scanner but it won’t happen if you or the garage is using the authorized Toyota scanner.

3.) This Toyota Tundra model also uses “Freeze Frame Data” system in which the actual engine condition factors are displayed in the generic scanner when the fault code appears. These factors normally include the engine temperature, the vehicle cruising speed and others sensors specs related to the fault code. This data is very important in pinpointing the suspected circuit or wiring causing the code. However, in case there are multiple codes showing in the generic scanner, the data described here only applies on the first code that shows up. This will prevent the user from toggling between codes for other data that can lead to confusion.

Troubleshooting TIPS:

The most common fault code of this 2002 Toyota Tundra model is the failure of the 4 oxygen sensors. If you have a 4.7L engine, two of these sensors are located at the engine exhaust manifolds and the other 2 behind the catalytic converters. In case these sensors are your fault code, contact your Toyota dealer right away for it might be covered under the vehicle’s warranty. This is especially true if the vehicle has below 100k mileage. However, if the vehicle has no coverage and you have to the repair the problem yourself, try these:

1.) Measure the oxygen sensor signal voltage as indicated by an authorized vehicle wiring diagram. The sensor exhaust manifold voltage reading should be oscillating between 0.1 volt to 0.9 volt. A fluctuation difference of 0.5volt to 0.7volt is considered normal and no fluctuation indicates a defective oxygen sensor.

2.) When measuring the rear oxygen sensors at the catalytic converter, the voltage reading fluctuation should be less because these sensors are use to monitor the muffler efficiency. Any fluctuation of around 0.2volt to 0.4 volt is considered normal.

3.) If the front exhaust manifold sensors are found defective, make sure the exhaust manifold itself is not leaking or cracked. Unless the manifold is fixed, the new oxygen sensors installed will fail again.

4.) Unless you have experience in testing electrical components, it is highly recommended to get an online mechanic assistance when working on these oxygen sensors. A simple mistake such as incorrect use of electronic diagnostic tools can damage the engine computer.

If you can implement these techniques, you should be able to fix most of your check engine light 2002 Toyota Tundra fault codes.

MLA Citation

MLA (Modern Language Association) is a cite style which is most commonly for papers within the liberal arts and humanities.

Citing sources in the text

Using MLA cite style, referring to the works of other authors in your research paper should be done with a parenthetical citation. When referring to other works, the source should be in parentheses after the quote or paraphrase.

For Example:

Victor Hugo stated that what people say about themselves has an influence on their lives and their destinies (1).

Victor Hugo stated that what people say about themselves “has as much influence on their lives, and particularly on their destinies, as what they do” (1).

Victor Hugo, in his work Les Miserables, mentioned the relation of thoughts and destinies (1).

Works Cited page

In your research paper, you must have a Works Cited page at the end. All of the sources included in this page must match with the works cited that you mentioned in your text.

General rules of Works Cited page:

It should start on a new page.

Put a space after each entry.

The indention of the entry should be a hanging indent.

List the entries alphabetically by the author’s last name.

Use italics for titles of longer works like books and magazines.

Use quotation marks for shorter works like articles, poems, stories.

Use page numbers when necessary (especially when citing a journal).

Include the medium of publication: Print, Web source, Film, CD-ROM, DVD

It’s not required to include URLs but if publisher requires it, you can include the URLs in angle brackets after your entry.


Capitalize each word for titles of works.

Do not capitalize prepositions/conjunctions unless they are the first word of the title/subtitle.

Examples of citations


The basic format for the citation is:

Lastname, Firstname. Title of Book. City of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication. Medium of Publication.

One author:

LaRocque, Paula. The Book on Writing: The Ultimate Guide to Writing Well. Oregon: Marion Street Press, 2003. Print.

If no author is available:

The Book on Writing: The Ultimate Guide to Writing Well. Oregon: Marion Street Press, 2003. Print.

Online Book:

You can easily just change the medium of publication to Online, Kindle, etc.

LaRocque, Paula. The Book on Writing: The Ultimate Guide to Writing Well. Oregon: Marion Street Press, 2003. Online.

Two authors:

The first given name should be typed in the last name, first name format but next name should be in the first name last name format.

Ingermanson, Randy and Peter Economy. Writing Fiction for All. New York: for All, 2009. Print.

Three or more authors:

For books with three or more authors, you may list only the first author followed by “et al.”

Ingermanson, Randy, et al. Writing Fiction for All. New York: for All, 2009. Print.

Multi-volume works:

When citing only one volume, include the volume number after the title. If there is a translator, add the number after it.

Albertini, Luigi. The Origins of the War of 1914. Trans. Isabella Massey. Vol. 1. New York: Enigma Books, 2005. Print.

When citing more than one volume, include the total number of volumes.

Albertini, Luigi. The Origins of the War of 1914. Trans. Isabella Massey. 3 vols. New York: Enigma Books, 2005. Print.

If each volume has its own title, cite the book as if each volume is an independent publication.

Rowling, J.K. Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone. London: Scholastic Paperbacks, 1999. Print.

Rowling, J.K. Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows. London: Scholastic Paperbacks, 2009. Print.

Chapter of a book:

If different from the author or editor of the complete work, refer to the complete work with the word “By.”

Chilson, Peter. The Border. The Best American Travel Writing 2008. Edited By Anthony Bourdain. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2008. 44-51. Print.


The basic format:

Author(s). “Title of Article.” Title of Journal Volume. Issue (Year): page(s). Medium of publication.

Dolby, Nadine. “Research in Youth Culture and Policy: Current Conditions and Future Directions.” Social Work and Society: The International 6.2. (3008): 44-49. Print.

Two authors:

Moon, Michael and Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick. ” Queers in (Single-Family) Space.” Assemblage 24. (1994): 44-49. Print.

Three or more authors:

You may list only the first author followed by “et al.”

Moon, Michael, et al. “Queers in (Single-Family) Space.” Assemblage 24. (1994): 44-49. Print.



Pianin, Eric. “Use of Arsenic in Wood Products to End.” Washington Post. 13 Feb. 2009: A11. Print.

If it is a local publication, make sure to include the city name and state in brackets after the newspaper title.


Pianin, Eric. “Use of Arsenic in Wood Products to End.” Washington Post. 13 Feb. 2002. Web. 4 May 2009.


Basic format (Print):

Author(s). “Title of Article.” Title of Periodical Day (if applicable) Month Year: page(s). Medium of publication.

Goldberger, Paul. “Machines for Living: The Architectonic Allure of the Automobile.” Architectural Digest October 1996: 82. Print.


Use n.p. if there is no publisher name given and n.d. if no publishing date is available.

Wyman, Bill. “Tony Soprano’s Female Trouble.” Salon.com. 19 May 2001. Web. 26 May 2001.


Make sure you include the date of access because web sites are updated often. Information available today may no longer later on.

Including a URL is optional but if a URL is required by your publisher or editor, include the complete address for the site.

Use n.p. if no publisher name is available and n.d. if no publishing date is given.

Entire websites:

Web Master/ Author (if available). Name of Site. Version number. Name of company/establishment/institution/organization affiliated with the site (sponsor or publisher), date of resource creation (if available). Medium of publication. Date of access.

Financial Accounting Standards Board. Version 1.0. Accounting Foundation. 30 Dec. 2009. Web. 27 Apr. 2009.


“Board Activities.” Financial Accounting Standards Board. Accounting Foundation. n.d. Web. 27 Apr. 2009.