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Aftermarket, OEM, OE Auto Parts Explained

Aftermarket, OEM, replacement parts–you see these words in almost all auto parts stores online. What do these terms mean?

For a passive buyer, these things are but ordinary terms used in the automotive market but for someone meticulous and who wants the best for his auto, these things matter considerably. Deciding which among these to purchase is just like deciding what car to buy.

O.E.M. stands for Original Equipment Manufactured. This means that OEM Ford parts are manufactured by Ford itself, Chevrolet parts are manufactured by Chevrolet, Toyota parts by Toyota, BMW parts by BMW and so on. The terms O.E.S. and OE are also used; these mean Original Equipment Supplied and Original Equipment, respectively. While in many cases, OEM and OES mean the same, OE is more general referring to any part that came as original equipment on the car. Some of OE car parts and components are not actually made by the car manufacturer but are purchased and assembled by the automakers to create a vehicle.

Those referred to as “aftermarket auto parts” are not made by the original car manufacturer; furthermore, they are bought and added to the vehicle only at the dealership or after the vehicle left the dealership. In terms of design and function, aftermarket products are almost the same as the stock auto parts since they are primarily used to replace a damaged original part so that the vehicle can continue to run. If you need replacement parts for your car, however, you can either buy O.E.M. or aftermarket auto parts. There are numerous sources of aftermarket auto parts. Stores like Auto Parts Discount give you a great variety of parts for almost all makes and models.

Some cars, especially the base models are not completely equipped so users just add aftermarket parts later on. For example if you have purchased an old Toyota Corolla, you can add aftermarket Toyota fog lights, Toyota spoiler, Toyota turn signal light or Toyota mirrors. Aftermarket products can also help you give your car a fresh new look. Even if your original parts are not yet damaged or worn out, you can replace them with or add specially designed aftermarket auto parts like Honda taillights, Ford center cap, Chevrolet chrome bumper, and Mercedes Benz Front Cover Towing Eye found at Auto Parts Discount.

Enthusiasts, on the other hand would opt for custom parts and specialty equipments. Compared to a universal fit auto part, which can be installed to any vehicle make, year and model, custom aftermarket products are designed to fit only a particular application. Examples of custom parts are your Ford hood, Ford fender and Ford doors. Specialty equipments on the other hand, are intended to make the vehicle more stylish, comfortable, convenient and more up-to-date.

Most auto users prefer aftermarket products because they are less expensive than OEM replacements. While it is true that there may be some aftermarket auto parts that do not meet high standards of original equipments, it is not right to say that aftermarket products are generally inferior in terms of quality and style. Replacement parts sold at Auto Parts Discount, for example are made by car parts manufacturers that are mandated by high international standards.

Which is better, OEM or aftermarket replacement part? It depends on the product. Some OEM parts are not durable enough while the aftermarket parts you use to replace them could last for many years. If you want to give your car a different look and also, if you want to save, aftermarket products are worth a try. However, make sure to get these replacement parts from trusted sources.

Advantages of Using Car Wreckers

Disposing of old automobile parts and accessories is a difficult task that relies on innovative technology and expertise. Car wreckers have the heavy-duty tools and know-how to dismantle the wide range of vehicles that have no future practical purpose. Many of the vehicles in these yards are old, no longer operable, severely damage, or deemed to be a total write-off by insurance companies.

The process of breaking down a car and using or recycling the parts is much more favorable than using a landfill site. This not only gives an economic advantage, but also has the ability to offer environmental benefits.

Here are several benefits that relate to using the services of the car wreckers:

Saves you money

Car wreckers generally have a long list of genuine vehicle parts in stock that can be purchased at a very attractive price. Buying second-hand parts from a yard has the potential to save 50% to 90% of the store-bought prices. Before crushing the body of the car the reusable parts are removed with the intention of selling on in the future. So, for the car restorers, gear-heads, or others planning vehicle maintenance, repairs, or an upgrade, a first stop to source the required auto parts or accessories can include the car wreckers.

Environmentally friendly

Car wreckers offer the more eco-friendly solution to help dispose of an old or neglected vehicle. Cars left on barren land or landfill sites will at some point start to leak harmful chemicals or pollutants into the ground or the atmosphere. This will result in long-term damage to the local soil or water sources and make it difficult for the same ground to be used for other purposes in the future.

Nearly 76% of all parts in an automobile can be reused in another car or truck which is appreciated for its ability to give long-term benefits to the planet. Many of the salvaged materials from the wrecked vehicle are reused in the automobile industry. For instance, rubber sourced from an old vehicle can be recycled and used in the production of floor mats, gas pedals, and tires.

Earn a profit

For those planning to have their old vehicles removed by the car wreckers it is possible to get cash reward in return for some of the metallic parts inside the car. After dismantling a vehicle, the yards, rely on a high-powered magnet which has the capacity to easily collect every last piece of scrap metal which is resold to other companies that have a practical need for it.

In addition to collecting the metallic parts, the car wreckers can also drain the vehicle’s fluids like oil, coolant, and gas, which is sold on to other parties or reused in the fully functional vehicle.

Buy obsolete parts

With the speed in which automobile technology is progressing, it can be difficult to source certain tools, parts, and accessories which are deemed to be obsolete. So, for those searching for parts to fit the older vehicle model long out of production, it can help to get in contact with a local car wrecker company to see if they have the types of parts and accessories needed. Most of these services are likely to dismantle all makes and models of vehicle, so are more likely to have a greater inventory of old stock compared to the automobile shop.

In view of the fact that automobiles are one of the most recycled products, there should be no shortage of supplies need in the process of completing a future upgrade or renovation.

How to Write Great Product Demonstrations or Training Scripts

People won’t buy your products or services if they can’t figure out how to use them. Therefore, it is imperative that you find ways to help your customers understand how to get the most of your products or services. Depending on your product or service, two valuable tools for promotions and sales are product demonstrations and training sessions.

Think of how many Ginsu knives, cookware sets, and mops have been sold, just because the audience members saw how to use the products. The reason why home shopping networks are so successful is because the hosts demonstrate the products and show their enthusiasm for them. People don’t like to admit what they don’t know, but if you show them without insulting them, they will buy and use your product or service.

The first thing to determine is, “Do you need actual training or a demonstration?” A demonstration shows the audience how to use a product, while a hands-on-training session, gives the consumer an opportunity to tryout the product or service. Training sessions are more appropriate for big ticket complicated items while simpler products only need demonstrations.

Next, decide the most important features of your product or service that you want to demonstrate. How does it improve lives and solve problems? Often your sales people will know what features sell the best. Or you may find the features that when shown, change customers’ objections to the product or service. For example, a broadband Internet service provider discovered that when their customers saw the value n high speed services, such as music downloading, photo sharing and chat, they were more likely to upgrade to high speed services.

Then you need to determine what style the demonstration will take. Will it be light or serious? How can you bring creative elements into the demonstration? What will best illustrate the emotional “wow” sensation of the product or service? What style best works for your demographic?

You also have to establish a framework of analogies to work from for your demographic. For years, I taught senior citizens how to use computers. No one wanted to teach them. The training was based on framework they understood. I had to explain how the typewriter evolved into word-processing. Then, explain how word-processing transformed into desktop publishing. I also gave a history of the personal computer and the Internet because this demographic was not following the development of computers at the time. When I wrote a script about HDTV, I needed to show the aspect ratio difference between HDTV and a standard TV, the HDTV wide screen was related to the wide screen in movie theatres and panoramic views.

Another helpful device to use within in your product demonstration or training is “Good Cop/Bad Cop,” one demonstrator is the “nay-sayer” who gets won over by the good guy. Remember that in all good teaching uses the “rule of three.” A student or viewer needs to see and hear a concept three times before it is learned and mastered. The teacher/demonstrator has to find ways to repeat the concept without being condescending or boring.

The demonstration/training will be more effective if it is entertaining. This is where you can have fun with the product or service. Techniques such as parody, dramatization, music, and viewing from the inside out will add depth to the presentation. I once had an editor tell me, “After you do all your research, the story writes itself.” This axiom is often true for demonstrations. After I figure out the objective, interview the sales and product manages, use the product or service, research the demographic and understand the true meaning of the service/product, I can hear the script come to life. The more questions I ask, the better the script becomes.

Product and service demonstrations/training are valuable tools to get and retain customers. They are very cost effective and bring your product or service to life enriching the lives of your customers. Human beings have for centuries learned by telling each other stories around the fire. Bring that fire to your customers and you’ll experience blazing sales.

The Must Have Features Of A Good Auto Protection Policy

As a motorist, the only way you will be able to drive with peace of mind is when you know that you have a protection cover that good enough. There are so many auto policies out there, but only those that have important features included will save the day for you when you need it the most. When looking at a cover, you should think about must have features, should have features and could have features; it is always best that you prioritize the must have features before anything else to enjoy the kind of benefits that are truly important.

Windscreen cover – This is a must have feature in your policy. It simply means that you will have the windscreen replaced or repaired following damage claim or a loss claim. A good policy should offer good value for the repairs; you should look to find out whether sunroofs and windows are included too. Also important to check is whether there are any repairer requirements that can limit the amount payable to the claim.

Personal belonging cover – This feature will cover any damage or loss of personal belongings in case of theft in the car, fire or accident. Remember that only personal belongings that were in the car during the occurrence will be covered, but essentially debt and credit cards, money and tickets and such items are not included in this cover. Theft of items that are carried out in the open or those that are in a convertible car may not be covered too unless maybe they were locked up.

Theft and loss of car keys – The feature will cover alarm keys, ignition keys, steering lock keys and even door openers. Your insurer will pay towards replacement of the keys and locks that are relevant. It is, however a feature that may not cover you in case you leave the keys on or in the car or those that are taken by family members without your permission.

Roadside assistance – It is among the most important features you must have in your policy. There is never telling when your car may develop problems; it could happen at any given time and at any given place greatly inconveniencing you. A protective cover that also caters to roadside assistance when the need arises will save you time and money of seeking outside assistance.

Car rescue cover – When you are involved in an accident, your car may be immobilized making it difficult for you to move it. Courtesy towing feature in your policy will help you cover the costs of removing it from the scene. The cover can also help with necessarily quick solutions to keep you mobile as the car gets repaired. The details of this feature will of course vary from one policy to another, so make sure that you choose terms that you feel will come in handy when you need them the most. The more you can get from your auto policy the better it will be for you.

What Is an AGO Oil Product or Automatic Gas Oil? Finding Authentic AGO Petroleum Supply/Supplier

A recent survey conducted by this writer on the Internet for a quick, snap shot sense of the subject matter, immediately revealed that there’s a state of relatively scanty knowledge of, or information about, this particular refined petroleum product called the AGO, among international oil dealers and suppliers. In deed, in one rather remarkable instance involving a popular ‘Ask for Answers’ online discussion portal, one reader expressly posited the question, soliciting information from the readers as to what is/was ‘the meaning’ of the petroleum term AGO, among three other refined petroleum products, which he went on to list – DPK, PMS, JET A1. There was just one response – a response that has stood the same for 5 years since. Oddly enough, however, of the 4 oil products that the answerer named, the answerer was exactly accurate in the definition he proffered on three of those. But, on ONLY one of them, the AGO product, the answer given by the answerer was somewhat slightly off, as he gave the definition of the product as meaning ‘Automotive Gas & Oils.’

So, first, we start with this basic question: What is AGO Oil Product, or the Automotive Gas Oil?

What the AGO Oil Product Is

The term AGO, which specifically stands for the Automotive Gas Oil, is the name given to the fuel type that’s used by road vehicles (cars, trucks, buses, vans, and the like) that are powered by DIESEL engines. That is, in a word, it is the diesel vehicle engine fuel. In terms of how the fuel gets to be produced or manufactured, the fuel is the type that, in the distillation and processing of crude oil work, is obtained in the mid-boiling range of that process. Related fuels which are used for non-road applications including off-road diesel engines, such as the Industrial Gas Oils (IGOs), are obtained from the same ‘fraction’ of the crude oil barrel.

Technically speaking, the term Automotive Gas Oil (AGO) is the technical name used by the oil industry in describing this particular fuel. However, in terms of the ordinary consumers in the market, the term ‘automotive diesel fuel,’ or just plain ‘diesel,’ is the more commonly used and more widespread name that the ordinary consumer uses in describing this fuel. Petroleum products are usually grouped into THREE categories: the ‘light distillates’ (LPG, gasoline, naphtha), the ‘middle’ distillates (kerosene, diesel), and the ‘heavy’ distillates and residuum (heavy fuel oil, lubricating oils, wax, asphalt). This classification is based primarily on the way crude oil is distilled and separated into fractions (called distillates and residuum). Within the oil industry, the generic oil industry name that’s used to describe gasoils – which include both AGO and IGO – fall under the ‘Middle Distillates’ category, meaning those kinds of refined oil products whose ‘boiling range’ fall in the MIDDLE, that is, between those whose range fall in the higher levels or in the lower levels. (See the Chart below). As you can readily see in the Chart below, at a Boiling Range of between 520 to 650, the AGO falls right in the middle range of most categories of the refined oil products.

The Market & Primary Uses of the AGO oil Product Among Its Customers

AGO is used in two main types of vehicles: 1) the heavy-duty vehicles, such as trucks and buses, and 2) the light-duty vehicles, such as vans and passenger cars. In most countries, including the USA as well as the developing countries, the heavy-duty vehicles make up the bulk of the market for AGO. In a country such as Japan, there is a significant light-duty vehicle sector, but it is in Europe that the demand for AGO from this sector is highest, with more than one-third coming from the passenger cars and other light vehicles. Customer requirements between the two types of fuel usage differ to some extent. Diesel engines are widely used in heavy-duty vehicles. Such vehicles are frequently operated in fleets and are re-fuelled centrally with the fuel delivered directly from the supplier. In the light-duty vehicle sector, recent advances in engine design now also allow light-duty diesel engines to compete with gasoline engines in terms of the performance standards. Light-duty vehicles are generally re-fuelled through retail outlets. In any case, whether it is in the light-duty sector or in the heavy-duty sector, in both sectors the customer will generally be looking for the fuel that provides economy, power, reliability and environmental acceptability.

Use As Car Fuel

Diesel-powered vehicles, such as AGO-powered vehicles, generally have a better fuel economy than equivalent gasoline engines and produce less greenhouse gas emission. Their greater economy is due to the higher energy per-liter content of diesel fuel and the intrinsic efficiency of the diesel engine. True, petrodiesel’s higher density results in higher greenhouse gas emissions per liter compared to gasoline. However, the modern diesel-engine automobiles have a 20-40% better fuel economy, and this well offsets the higher per-liter emissions of greenhouse gases, while a diesel-powered vehicle emits 10-20 percent less greenhouse gas than comparable gasoline vehicles. Biodiesel-powered diesel engines offer substantially improved emission reductions compared to petrodiesel or gasoline-powered engines, while retaining most of the fuel economy advantages over conventional gasoline-powered automobiles.

How Crude Oil Fractions Are Processed Into Refined Oil Products, Including AGO and Other Products

How do we get to have refined petroleum products, of which a product like AGO is one? Put simply, it is out of the refinery processing (i.e., out of the ‘refining’) of crude oil that many other usable products – products that we generally refer to as refined or finished petroleum products – are produced. Meaning products such as gasoil, gasoline, kerosene, AGO, etc. The process of oil ‘refining’ or processing is a very complex one, and involves both chemical reactions and physical separations. The substance that’s called Crude Oil is composed of thousands of different ‘molecules,’ and according to chemical engineers and molecular experts, it would be nearly impossible to isolate every molecule that exists in crude oil and thereby make finished products from each molecule.

Consequently, the way chemists and engineers deal with this problem, is simply by them isolating the mixtures (also called ‘fractions’) of molecules according to what is known as the mixture’s “boiling point range.” For example, molecules for the gasoline product might boil within the ‘range’ of from 90 to 400 oF. While the range at which the home heating oil product’s molecular mixes could boil might be from 500 to 650 oF, and so on. For purposes of convenience and simplification, each mixture or fraction is assigned a specific name to identify it.

The following chart illustrates the ‘boiling range’ and name of the petroleum fractions.


Boiling Range,oF.

Butanes and lighter


Light straight run gasoline (LSR)

or light naphtha (LN)


Naphtha or heavy naphtha (HN)




Distillate or atmospheric gas oil (AGO)



650 +

Vacuum gas oil (VGO)


Vacuum Residua

1000 +

In sum, refined products are products that are produced by isolating the mixtures or fractions of molecules that come from the raw crude oil, and combining them, along with those from various refinery processing units. These fractions are ‘blended’ or mixed to satisfy specific properties that are important in allowing the refined product to perform in accordance with the specifications or requirements that are designed by or in an engine, in terms of ease in handling, reducing the undesirable emissions produced when the product is burned, etc


Simply stated, the KEY term and task here is finding an authentic AGO oil product supply or supplier. Or an AGO buyer, as the case may be. Why? This is simply because, today, in the international refined oil products trading market, specially in the so-called “secondary” market, probably the single most fundamental and most difficult common problem which legitimate dealers who seek to find reliable suppliers have, is often NOT so much finding a party who will claim heaven and earth that he/she has the AGO oil product to sell and can supply you the product. Or that he can buy one from you, as the case may be. BUT finding such a party who is actually AUTHENTIC & LEGITIMATE, and can actually DELIVER on the product.


A well-established reality and a given today, is that in world oil deals involving trading in the crude oil and refined petroleum products, specially in the so-called international “secondary” market, probably the single most fundamental and most difficult common problem which legitimate buyers frequently confront today, is the problem of the genuineness and authenticity of the supplier of product and his ability to deliver on the sales offer he presents. Refined petroleum products, such as AGO, D2, Mazut, Jet fuel, etc., are certainly not immune or exempt from such endemic problem that seems to plague the entire secondary market oil trade industry, but rather are, in deed, right in the middle of it.

It’s a problem whose central source can simply be summed up in one word – namely, that not unlike most persons or entities who claim via the Internet to be oil or petroleum products suppliers or “sellers,” most who claim to be suppliers of AGO, as well (or of similar refined oil products, such as the diesel gasoil or Russian D2, Mazut, Jet fuels, and the like), either provide NO proofs or evidence at all of that, or provide proofs or evidence that are often absolutely meaningless because they’re unverified and unverifiable. That is, for the serious or credible Internet petroleum buyer involved in the world oil deals and seriously intent on finding duly verifiable authentic AGO oil product supply or supplier, there are generally just NO such supply or suppliers of the product in the so-called “secondary” market.

Most such serious or genuine AGO buyers (or suppliers, as well, as the case may be) seeking to find equally genuine AGO suppliers (or sellers seeking buyers, when applicable) in the international secondary market, find that the problem is particularly acute and compounded by the fact that almost all “sellers” (or suppliers), or their brokers or intermediaries, that one meets on the Internet, are essentially unknown, unestablished dealers who lack any name, reputation or identity, or any known location on the planet, and lack any record or history of past performance in doing the business. In consequence, a serious AGO buyer, for example, is often being asked – and actually being realistically expected – to, in effect, merely take “the word” of some dubious, anonymous, unidentified and apparently unidentifiable, phantom “seller” or “supplier” for it, with no credible supporting evidence provided, and no verification or authentication whatsoever of the Internet seller’s offer or claims.

In sum, he’s being asked – and actually being expected – to risk, or, rather, to gamble away, his hard-earned mini-fortune of some hundreds of millions of dollars merely on such a “word.”! This, it should be added, is being expected of the buyer in a business environment and climate that is patently awash in fraud and a network of notorious scammers worldwide!


Clearly, then, if you are a real buyer of product seriously intent on finding authentic diesel AGO oil product supply or suppliers (or those of any similar refined oil products, such as the diesel gasoil or Russian D2, Mazut, Jet fuels, and the like) – meaning one that is duly verified and verifiable – probably the most critical, vital, even life-or-death task for you, is that you had better be sure to develop, in some way or manner, a skilled and effective strategy for finding, vetting, selecting out and authenticated suppliers that can provide you reliable steady supply of the product, and which will be scam-free, assured, and long-lasting.


Quite oddly enough, the answer to that question is actually not that complicated or complex. For our limited purposes here, suffice it simply to just say, that there is, in fact, such a methodology, tool and strategy for doing just that long in practical use in the industry. Long in practical use by knowledgeable, experienced and trained eyes and experts, and the successful traders, in the business. If you are, yourself, in fact a provable legitimate trader or authentic practitioner of the petroleum trade (assuming you are actually one) operating in the secondary market, and are truly serious about finding and securing authentic and reliable AGO oil product supply or supplier, or about finding and securing a buyer of equivalent caliber for the product, as the case may be, that’s actually readily within your reach. There’s just really one crucial proviso, only – namely, PROVIDING that you’re equipped with the requisite knowledge, skill, training, tool, methodology and practical experience, by which to undertake the whole process of doing so.

To be sure, true, in today’s world oil deals of the international secondary market, including sourcing for AGO product, which is largely an Internet-dominated world, and is for the most part prevalently awash in fake dealers and scammers, finding duly verified authentic petroleum or automotive gas oil product supply, suppliers and sellers of such caliber (or buyers, just as well), is not ordinary or commonplace. Nor is it at all an easy task to attain. It is, however, by no means impracticable, nor are such suppliers non-existent. Far, far from it! Quite to the contrary, such suppliers abound. It’s only that you just have to search around for such suppliers (or the legitimate buyers, as well, as the case may be) more diligently and skillfully and in the right places from the right sources, and know precisely how and where. That requires, unavoidably, supreme industry knowledge, skills set, training, know-how, connections, precious time expenditure, and experience.



How Electrical Engineering Continues to Change the World

Electrical engineering may seem like a boring profession, especially if the first person that comes to mind is the public utility repairman who fixed the neighborhood power grid. Contrary to popular belief, a degree in electrical engineering leads to career opportunities bigger than that. Behind some of the latest and greatest innovations is a workforce that is well-versed on the subject.

Cellular Telecommunications

A few decades ago, the first publicly available handheld phones were bulky and with bad reception. By the 90’s and with thanks to the electrical engineering developments towards GSM technologies, mobile phones soon did more than just make and receive calls. Today, it has become a race to the smallest, most multi-functional mobile phone. Headway in electrical engineering and the subsequent circulation of the science means more companies need creative individuals. And this is just to keep up with the competition. That’s not even taking into account the perks of such a world-changing occupation.

Computer Electronics

The boost in the mobile world is owed largely to the impressive breakthroughs in computer technology. These original steps forward are owed to the electrical engineering concepts behind them. Even now, electrical engineering knowhow is necessary in order to come up with devices that get continually more complex as its operation becomes simpler. Before the software developers came up with the applications that make our lives easier, someone made the increasingly sophisticated networks and computers that they are stored in. Whose midnight oil do you think was burned to make the hardware and software giants the successes that they are?

Space Exploration

Rocket science may have been ultimately responsible for putting a man on the moon. Yet it was the resolve and commitment of electrical engineering professionals that made it possible to see three-dimensional renditions of the planet Mars. It is their skills that are put to the test when equipment stop functioning or have new requirements. They continue to challenge the existing limitations by changing how we view them and the world in general. This makes them the best bet towards future journeys outside our solar system.

You may intend to follow in the innovative entrepreneurial milestones of and expert like Thomas Edison. You may idolize the large leaps and bounds in the science made by Nikola Tesla. Either way, electrical engineering has a place for you. All it asks is that you stay passionate, motivated and dedicated to persevere and make those milestones, leaps and bounds.

How Should a Mobile Car Wash Price Car Lot Washing Contracts – Price Per Car Strategies

Okay so, you run a mobile car washing business and you want to increase your revenue generation by adding some car dealership lot washing contracts. That makes sense because the car dealerships have lots of cars, and they must be cleaned to sell; no one wants to buy a dirty car right? Sure, so your next question is what price point can you charge and still make money. Not long ago, I was asked about this by an already successful car washing entrepreneur;

“I noticed on one of your posts [articles] you suggested $.85 for twice a week. Wow, can it be done for that without have the contract for detailing as well?”

He was referring of course to the synergy gained by detailing for auto dealerships and also maintaining the washing contracts as a bundled service, which is the favored strategy for mobile auto detailers and mobile car washing companies. But what if you only had the lot washing contract and not the detailing contract; does it still make any sense?

Well, yes, in fact, we had many accounts which were only wash accounts at between.65 and $.85 per car, where we did not have the detailing contract yet, for the auto dealership. For instance at the Sacramento Auto Mall, all the car lots are set on the street that looks like a giant circle, and we would have the crews going different directions on that street, and we would never quit. By the time we got done with one side of the street, it was time to start over, they just watched every day all day long.

Some of the other dealerships wanted us to be off of the lot by 10 AM so they could sell cars, which makes it tough in the winter because of the ice formation when you put water on the cars in many areas.

The detailing contracts for auto dealerships are very good when the economy is good, but you must understand that auto dealerships are very slow to pay and you don’t want to become a bank where you are doing services for them and they are paying you for three months. That just costs you a lot of cash flow and all that labor until you get your money.

Remember in a service business “cash flow” is king, everything else is just talk. You’re better off to go find something else to wash rather than letting some company string you out on payments and receivables. And remember that God made dirt on the first day, and that gets all over everything so you should be able to find something to wash other than just car lots.

It appears the mobile car washing entrepreneur agrees and is thinking here too. We used to consider car lots as busy work, keeping our crews busy and thus making money, but it was hardly our best profit center. Please consider all this.

What’s the Difference Between Passive and Active Wheel Speed Sensors?

There are two types of wheel speed sensors currently in use: magnetic inductive, more commonly known as passive sensors and magneto resistive, or active wheel speed sensors. Both of sensors do a similar job, but they function in completely different ways. Both function effectively in their own ways, but the more modern active wheel sensor is generally regarded as the more reliable.

Passive sensors have been around since the early days of the anti-lock brake system (ABS). These sensors function on the generator principle. The speed sensors work with the toothed tone wheels to monitor and provide the anti-lock brake module (ABM) with wheel speed information. The actuator is a toothed tone wheel that rotates with the individual wheel. Each tooth on the tone wheel acts as an actuator for the wheel speed sensor. As the tone wheel rotates, the teeth go in and out of the proximity of the sensor. The result is an alternating current (AC) voltage that is generated in the sensor coil by magnetic lines of force fluctuating as the tone passes by the magnetic sensor.

The output of the wheel speed sensor can vary from vehicle to vehicle due to: winding type, air gap, magnetic strength of sensor, metal properties of the tone wheel and wheel speed. Unfortunately these types of passive systems have been prone to false cycling, which is the term used to describe an ABS cycle even though the road conditions do not dictate the need for this cycle. This condition is very prone to happen at slower speeds. This tends to happen because of wheel damage or rust build-up on the tone wheel. An incorrect sensor air gap will cause this condition, as well as debris on the wheel speed sensor tip.

Active wheel sensors have been in use since 1999. This style of speed sensor helps to increase performance, durability and low speed accuracy. Active sensors do not appear to have the same false cycle problem of passive sensors do. Most vehicles with active sensors still use a toothed tone wheel which acts as the trigger mechanism for the sensor. Some vehicles use a magnetic encoder in place of a traditional tone wheel. The encoders have north/south pole magnets imbedded into the ring. The ring is then pressed on the axle shaft just like a tone wheel. In either case the result is a digital square wave signal.

On this system, the ABM sends battery voltage to the speed sensor to power it up. The sensor, in turn, supplies the ABM a constant 7 milliamp (mA) signal on a signal return circuit. Depending on the tone ring or magnetic encoder position, this 7 mA signal is turned on or off. The output of the sensor sent to the ABM is a Direct Current (DC) voltage signal with changing voltage and current levels. The ABM monitors the changing digital signal from each wheel speed sensor and is interpreted as wheel speed.

The Need for Hybrid Cars

Since the very conception of the automobile, engineers and designers have been searching for was to make them more efficient and save on fuel consumption. Petrol fuels the majority of vehicles and diesel fuel is used in heavier automotive equipment. The internal combustion engine is considered to be a major if not the biggest source of environmental pollution and the cost of fuel is increasing every day.

With a constant rise in fuel costs and the environmental concerns regarding automobiles, vehicle engineers have had to develop more economical and environmentally safer alternatives to the internal combustion engine that powers most cars. This has led to the birth of the hybrid automobile. These hybrid automobiles offer a number of benefits. The hybrid automobile is a car that is powered by both an electric motor and a gasoline engine. Compared to non hybrid vehicles, the hybrid car saves on the cost of fuel by being more fuel efficient and has a lower rate of fuel consumption.

Hybrid cars operate on a dual mode where the electric motor, powered by batteries, takes over once the gasoline engine has gotten the vehicle up to speed. Braking and deceleration generates energy that is used to charge the electric motor’s batteries. This system allows the hybrid car to provide better fuel efficiency. This also means that the engine of a hybrid vehicle is shut the moment the car is stopped. Considered the biggest advantage to the hybrid car is the reduction of environmental pollution due to fewer emissions of carbon dioxide and other harmful gases in to our atmosphere. Automobile manufactures such as Honda, Toyota, and Ford have already introduced hybrid car models to the commercial market and several others are in development.

Currently there are two types of hybrid vehicles on the market. The first is the “Series” hybrid. A battery powered electric motor powers the Series hybrid car. It also has a gasoline powered engine but it does not singularly power the vehicle. The gasoline engine powers a generator which is used in turn to charge the batteries of the electric motor. The electric motor is left on during the vehicles entire operation however the gasoline engine can be switched on or off depending on the needs of the vehicle. This type of hybrid automobile provides better mileage in city traffic.

The second type of hybrid vehicle on the market is called the “Parallel” hybrid. The Parallel hybrid car, like the Series type, has a gasoline engine and an electric motor. The electric motor and the electric motor can both be used to turn the transmission and power the vehicle. The major difference between the two types of hybrid cars is that the Parallel hybrid uses its electric motor to boost the vehicles power when required to increase the car’s speed. The Parallel hybrid car is considered better suited for the open highway.

Hybrid automobiles provide several benefits due to some very unique features. The construction of the hybrid vehicle uses more lightweight materials than traditional automobile. This saves energy by using less to propel the hybrid car. Hybrid cars also increase energy efficiency because of their more aerodynamic shapes. Tires used by hybrid vehicles run on a higher pressure and are made of a more rigid material than general car tires. The higher pressure helps to increase the vehicles gas mileage per gallon of gasoline used. The overall efficiency of the vehicle is increased by these tires because they reduce friction on road surfaces and provided a grip. The braking system provided an energy transfer from the electric motor to the vehicles batteries when ever the brakes are applied. The overall gas mileage of a hybrid varies from model to model. The EPA test numbers report that the Lexus RX400h receives 31 MPG in the city and 27 MPG the highway while the Honda Insight receives 61 MPG in the city and 68 MPG on the highway.

In conclusion, the future of automobiles is currently the hybrid car and purchasing a hybrid vehicle will not only save you money but will also allow you to take responsibility and do you part in creating a safer, cleaner and greener environment.

How Sex and Pornography Affects Your Academic Performance

It was the year 2008, and I was having a splendid time in Federal Polytechnic Nekede, Owerri Imo State, Nigeria. I was one of the best in the Department of Public Administration with a first semester GPA of 3.52 and second semester GPA of 3.50 all in a scale of 4.00. The secret was simple, attend lectures regularly, take good rest and read every day. It was clear that with more effort, I will graduate with distinction, which might lead to automatic employment to be a lecturer in the Polytechnic.

In my first semester final year, I met a student called Jane. Before then my relationship with female students was platonic. My close pals were my reading partners. I and Jane’s relationship gradually turned to a sexual type. Instead of going home to rest after the day’s lectures, I went straight to Jane’s hostel. I will return home late, too weak to read.

My night reading also suffered, because I was busy making midnight calls and sleeping away the remaining time. I spent most of my time discussing with and visiting Jane. It became so bad that I couldn’t concentrate in class. I kept recalling our entire sexual escapade while lectures went on. Instead of reading for a proposed two hours, I will spend an hour thirty minutes remembering all we did and a mere thirty minutes for skeletal reading. Concentration, reading, retention and recollection became a big problem.

I met my Waterloo when Jane told she was pregnant. Immediately, my focus changed from my academics to how to deal with the child. We did all we could to get rid of the baby, from drinking of hot drinks to different concoctions, all to no avail. She kept crying around me, forcing me to get money for an abortion.

I became confused and lost total control of my academics. I couldn’t sleep at night because different thoughts enveloped my mind. Am I going to be a murderer? What if she died in the process of abortion? These and many more questions occupied my head. At a point, I started having nightmares. I kept seeing dead bodies. Then, graduating with Distinction was the least in my scale of preference.

Nevertheless, we consulted an abortionist and used my school fees to pay for his service. Painfully, I had peace. Few weeks after, I wrote my first semester HND1 examinations. The result was published a month later, and it became clear that it was impossible to graduate with distinction. My GPA was 3.27. I needed at least 3.71 to get to the top level. Everybody was disappointed including my reading partners.

I came back for my second semester determined to be the best regardless of my last semester’s result. I forgot my past and never recalled my sexual relationship with Jane. One evening Jane invited me to come to her house for sex; I refused to go. She kept alluring me, but I stood my ground. I have decided never to have sex with anyone. She became angry and stopped talking to me, yet I focused on my academics. Jane begged and cried for my return, but I kept fleeing. She started making all sorts of negative comments about me, in spite of that I remained steadfast. I read two times daily, one, immediately after the day’s lectures and another in the early hours of the morning.

After our second semester examination, I nervously went back to my home in Port Harcourt. Few weeks later, my friend Chukwudike gave me a call. He said, “George, our results are out; you are a record breaker. Your GPA is 3.75, The Head of Department and most of the lecturers want to know who Anyaehie George is.” I later graduated as the second-best in the department (distinction level).


According to information drawn from a Canadian community health survey 43% of teens aged 15 to 19 reported that they had had sex at least once. A survey conducted by the University of New Hampshire indicated that 42% of internet users aged between 10 and 17 years said they had watched online pornography in the preceding year.

Pre-marital and pornography has become a serious problem today because sex and porn materials can be accessed easily. Sex hawkers are everywhere around the neighbourhood; we even have mobile or Internet sex. Pornographic materials are just a click away. Actors in pornographic films are now recognised as celebrities, they are called “porn stars.”

Pre-marital sex and pornography are one of the cardinal causes of academic failures. How? A vital neurotransmitter in the brain is dopamine. It has many important roles; it serves in functions such as voluntary movement, pleasure experience, motivation, reward, punishment, and learning. Sex and pornography target the dopaminergic system to release great amounts of dopamine, which results in experiencing a “high,” often leading to addiction. When released, dopamine strengthens and reinforces the new connections that are being made in the brain while an activity is undertaken. This in turn acts to encourage the individual to repeat the activity again so they can feel that pleasure once more. And when the person refuses to repeat the activity, it breeds depression, dissatisfaction and anger.

As the sexual or nude images are displayed physically or on the screen, an arousal takes place and the dopaminergic system is triggered just like it would be by drugs such as cocaine. The newly formed connections in the brain from having sex or watching pornographic images become greatly reinforced by the massive amounts of dopamine being released. Rather than going into short-term memory, where these images can be forgotten after the screen is turned off, the dopamine reinforcement ensures they’re moved into the long-term memory stores where they can be stuck in replay mode in the person’s mind. The troublesome fact about this is that the more something is recalled, the further it solidifies it in the brain. That is why you cannot easily forget sexual escapades. You can narrate how the adventure started, how it progressed and how it ended.

What’s alarming about this information is that the brain acts as a whole entity; its plasticity is global. Change in one area affects other regions. Sex and Pornography viewings can literally rewire the overall neural connections. When the brain is rewired to focus on sex or pornography, reading, understanding and recalling becomes difficult because the long-time memory has been occupied with sexual or pornographic images or scenes.

There is nothing as dangerous as “let me try it just once,” because dopamine will make you an addict. Addiction starts from one encounter or scene. It progresses from soft pornography of reading text describing sexual feelings and mild graphic images to hard pornography of graphic images of people engaging in sex and graduates to real sex. With time, the images are imprinted on the mind of whoever is consuming them, leading to addiction to sex and pornography.

Research has shown that students who have sex perform lower than those that don’t. Focus on an area leads to the loss of focus in another area. You cannot compare a married student with unmarried one; the unmarried one will be more focused. That is why some schools don’t admit married students. It is also important to state that many of the world’s greatest inventors refused to have sex or get married. Notable among them are the Wright Brothers, George Washington Carver, Nikola Tesla, Paul of Tarsus.