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Auto Air Conditioning Repair 101

When your car or truck A / C is not blowing "cold air", the first thought is to panic. $$$$ Signs are going through your mind. Your A / C is broken and the repair is going to be expensive. This article takes the mystery out of automotive air conditioning and serves as a primer so that you can make common repairs yourself and save MONEY on professional repairs.

A / C Principles

There are books and publications that contain volumes of information on the subject of air conditioning repair. This information is often too technical for the you to learn how-to fix your auto air conditioning system.

In the nutshell, here is all that you need to know about the fundamentals of refrigeration so that you can fix your auto air conditioning system yourself.

Air conditioning is the process in which air inside the passenger compartment is cooled, dried, and circulated. Heat is removed from inside the vehicle and transferred to the outside air.

All air conditioners whether, it is an auto A / C, household refrigerator or home HVAC, work on the same principles. Namely, a liquid refrigerant is changed to a gas and then back to a liquid. If a change-of-state of the refrigerant is to take place, heat transfer must take place. The two (2) rules that apply to refrigerant are:

1. Refrigerant in a gaseous state collects, absorbs, and holds heat.
2. Refrigerant in a liquid state releases that heat.

A / C Operation and Components

For your auto A / C to blow "cold air", R-134A refrigerant must pass through and change state in three (3) components, one (1) receiver-dryer, and one (1) expansion valve that makes up the closed auto air conditioning system. The components of the system are:

1. Compressor – A device that pressurizes the heated refrigerant ..

2. Condenser – A radiator for refrigerant that transfers the heat that was absorbed in the passenger compartment to the cooler air.

3. Evaporator – Is a small radiator located under dash in the passenger compartment. Liquid refrigerant entering the evaporator creates a pressure loss. The liquid refrigerant absorbs heat from the air blowing across the evaporator. It then boils and changes state to vapor before it enters the suction port of the compressor.

4. Receiver-Dryer – Is a canister that stores the liquid refrigerant when the compressor is not running. It contains a desiccant that removes moisture from the system.

5. Expansion Valve – Is a metering device that controls the amount of refrigerant to the evaporator.

A / C Quick Check

A check that can easily be made to check the health of the A / C system is the "feel check". With engine running, turn the auto A / C control to "ON" and the blower on "high". Take a test drive to warm the engine until the A / C system pressures stabilize. Raise the hood. With the A / C "On", locate the large tubing connected and routed from the compressor (low side) to the expansion valve (inlet side) of the evaporator. Next, locate the small tubing that is connected to the discharge-side of the compressor and routed to the outlet side of the evaporator. When you feel these two (2) lines, you should observe these results:

1. The low-side line should feel "cool" to the touch.
2. The high-side line should feel "warm" to the touch.

If the high-side tubing is not warm and the low-side is not cool, further tests will have to be made as the system is not doing any work. There is an internal problem; such as, a defective component or a leak in your A / C system.

Testing A / C System

Before system temperature tests can be made, a checklist should be followed (below) to setup for testing the A / C system:

1. Set the A / C "ON-OFF" switch to "ON".
2. Set the temperature control to "maximum cooling".
3. Set the blower on "high" or the highest number on the control switch.
4. Temperature inside passenger compartment should be stable and getting cooler.
5. Engine speed must be a minimum of 1500 rpm's.
6. All windows should be be in the "UP" position.

Check Temperature

Your compact car or truck has a small capacity A / C system and a loss of "cooling" would be more noticeable than a larger capacity auto A / C system. If a noticeable loss of "cooling" capacity is noticed, a temperature check at the vent registers should be made. This check can be made with an instant read or digital temperature thermometer .. The discharge air from the vents in the passenger compartment should range from 38 to 42 degrees F.

A / C System Diagnosis

Assuming that the discharge air test measured at the vent registers is out-of-range, a system pressure test will have to be made. Professional A / C technicians connect a tool known as the manifold gauge set to the "low" and "high" side service valves of the system. For you to diagnose and look inside the A / C, it will be necessary to become proficient in the use of the manifold gauge set.

A manifold gauge set that is suitable for the needs can be purchased at most auto supply stores and Internet A / C tool and supply store fronts for less than $ 50.00. TIP: Look for a gauge set that has a built-in sight glass.

Locate the "low" and "high" side service valves .. Connect the hoses (they are a snap connector fit) to the service valves in the following manner :.

1. Connect the blue hose of the gauge set to the "low-side" service valve of the compressor.
2. Connect the red hose of the gauge set to the "high-side service valve of the compressor.
3. The yellow hose of the gauge set is connected to a vacuum pump or a refrigerant can to add refrigerant to the system. The yellow hose is not connected to the system at this time.

Static Test

If you find an out-of-range temperature reading, the manifold gauge set should be installed on the "low" and "high-side" service valves. With the engine "OFF" and the compressor and clutch not engaged, the blue "low-side" and red "high-side" gauges should show equal readings of approximately 80 to 120psi. These readings would indicate that there is a refrigerant charge in your A / C system. If the readings were 50psi on each gauge, this would indicate that there is refrigerant in the system but a LOW CHARGE. If the readings were 10 to 20psi on each gauge would indicate that there is little or no refrigerant in your A / C system.

Engine Running Test

Start the engine, .turn the A / C switch "ON" with the blower on "high" and run for a minimum of fifteen (15) minutes. Observe the reading on the manifold gauge set. TIP: A manifold gauge set with a built-in sight glass (mentioned above) will save you diagnostic time as most A / C systems do not have a sight glass built-in the receiver-dryer on the high side of the system.

With this feature, you look for bubbling refrigerant oil and refrigerant in the sight glass on the manifold. Oil moving through the glass would indicate that the compressor and clutch are engaged. Refrigerant is being moved from the low-side throughout the A / C system in the refrigeration cycle.

Low Charge

With the engine running, A / C switch "ON", and the manifold gauge set installed, a "low-side" pressure reading of 20psi over 150psi would indicate that your A / C system has a LOW CHARGE. The low reading of 150psi on the "high-side" gauge would be the tell tale that the system is doing very little work. A LOW CHARGE usually is an indicator that there is a refrigerant leak from a component on the "low" or "high-side" of the A / C system. A refrigerant leak in the system would have to be repaired for the A / C system to blow "cold air". TIP: REFRIGERANT DOES NOT WEAR OUT, IT LEAKS OUT. Some symptoms to look for a LOW CHARGE condition are:

1. Compressor clutch short cycling.
2. Clutch will not engage.
3. Little or no cooling.
4. Oily residue on hoses and components.

Leak Checking

For your A / C system to blow "cold air", refrigerant leaks will have to be found and repaired. Usually, leaks in an A / C system are minor and can be fixed with a screwdriver or hand tools. Most A / C systems use schrader valves for easy connection of the manifold gauge set. That said, these are no more than overgrown bicycle valves that use a valve core. When you are checking a system, the valves are the first place check for a leak. Other targets; such as, oil residue on hoses connected to the compressor is the second place that should be checked. TIP: When tightening the bolts to the suction and discharge ports of the compressor with hand tools, do not over tighten. Rubber 0-rings are placed on the suction and discharge ports of the compressor for sealing. The seals will create a leak when over tightened. Only tighten snug.

When your A / C system has a LOW CHARGE, a refrigerant charge will have to added to check for the leak. Refrigerant that contains a dye for leak checking a system is used for this purpose. The manifold gauge set, refrigerant, and a can tap valve will be needed to add refrigerant to check for a leak in the system.

Connect the manifold gauge set as discussed above. Connect the yellow hose to the can tap valve and front seat (turn clockwise) the valve. Close the blue gauge on the manifold gauge set. Open the valve on the can tap valve. Slowly open the valve on the blue or "low-side" gauge and let the refrigerant flow from the refrigerant can into the system until you see a reading of 60psi on the "low-side" gauge. TIP: Placing the refrigerant can in a pan of hot water will allow the vapor refrigerant to enter the A / C system quicker. WARNING: Do not invert the refrigerant can. Doing so will allow liquid refrigerant to enter the system resulting in a ruined compressor.

Professional A / C technicians use an electronic leak detector to find leaks in an system. Use a battery-powered UV leak detector kit and special UV glasses. This kit can be purchased at auto supply stores and Internet A / C supply store fronts.

The UV glasses should be worn when checking for leaks. Simply place the tip of the detector on a fitting or connection to each component to be checked in the A / C system. When a leak is found, a light greenish color will be seen through the UV glasses.

Air Flow

An often overlooked cause of your A / C system not blowing "cold air" is debris that clogs the condenser. Bugs, plastic bags, and leaves from city and highway driving will prevent air from passing through the fins of the condenser. The condenser should be cleaned with a cleaning solvent. Bent fins on the condenser should be straightened with a fin comb.

Restrictions

A restriction is a condition that is a blockage. Usually, it is traced to the outlet side of the condenser. Some form of debris has formed causing a restriction of refrigerant flow through the condenser tubes .. The passages in the tubes of most condensers that are used in compact cars and trucks are very small. An effective way to diagnose a restriction in your A / C system is the manifold gauge set. The "high-side" (red) gauge would move into the DANGER zone, over 300psi.

System Repairs

When a system has been opened, and a component removed, moisture has entered the system. For your A / C to blow "cold air", that moisture will have to be removed with the aid of a vacuum pump.

At this stage of the repair, you have two (2) choices to finish the repair of your A / C system. The first choice is take the car or truck to an A / C professional. At their shop, they will evacuate the system, check your work, and recharge the A / C system for a fee.

The second choice is to repair your A / C system yourself. You will need to borrow or buy a vacuum pump to finish the repair. A small 2-stage vacuum pump that is designed for automobile refrigeration systems is available for less than $ 100.00.

After replacing a component, moisture has entered the system during the repair. For the A / C system to blow "cold air" the moisture will have to be removed. Install the manifold gauge set to your car or truck service valves as described above. After repairs, your A / C system is evacuated and recharged by applying the below steps:

1. Blue hose to the "low-side" service valve.

2. Red hose to the "high-side service valve.

3. Yellow hose to the suction port of the vacuum pump.

4. Close the hand valve to the vacuum pump.

5. Back seat (open) the hand valves on the blue and red gauges of the manifold gauge set.

6. Connect the electrical power to the vacuum pump.

7. Open the hand valve on the vacuum pump.

8. Run the vacuum pump for three (3) minutes.

9. The needle on the "low-side" gauge (blue) show should be in a vacuum at 28.3hg.

10. A system with no leaks will pull a vacuum of 28.3hg in three (3) minutes.

11. If the needle of the blue gauge did not fall to 28.3hg, the evacuation will have to be aborted as there is a leak in your car or truck A / C system.

12. The leak will have to be found in the A / C system using the UV detector and UV glasses.

13. Once the leak has been found and repaired, continue the evacuation steps as described above for 25 minutes.

14. Front seat (close) the hand valves on the blue and red gauges and observe the needle on the blue gauge.

15. The needle should hold steady at 29hg, indicating a tight system with no leaks.

16. Any needle movement toward "0" on the blue "low-side" gauge would indicate a leak in the system and the evacuation would have to be aborted and conduct a search for the leak.

16.Look in the owners manual or service manual for the factory recommended refrigerant charge. It is usually from 16 to 28 ounces.

17.Attach the can tap valve to a can of refrigerant Make sure that the tap valve hand valve is front seated (closed).

18. Turn the A / C control switch to the "ON" position and blower switch to "high".

19. Start the engine and run at 1500rpm's.

20. Place the refrigerant can in a pan of hot water. Warning: Do not invert the can for this process as liquid would enter the system and ruin the reed valves of the compressor.

21. Continue this process until the factory charge (approximately 2 1/2 cans) has entered the system.

22. Shutoff your car or truck engine and let the A / C system stabilize. When the readings on the red and blue gauges are equal, remove the blue "low-side" hose from the service valve.

23. Restart the engine and remove the red "high-side" hose from the service valve.

24. Close the hood and take your car or truck for a three (3) mile test drive.

25. Place an instant read or digital thermometer in the vent register in the passenger compartment.

26. The temperature should range from 38 to 42 degrees F on a 90-degree day.

Tools and Materials

1. Manifold gauge set
2. Vacuum pump
3. Hand tools
4. Battery powered UV leak detector
5. Can tap valve
6. 134A refrigerant dye
7. 134A refrigerant
8. Instant read temperature thermometer
9. Digital temperature thermometer

Calculating Car Workshop Labour Efficiency

The clock is ticking

‘Time is money’ in bodyshops and service workshops. Essentially, these operations buy and sell the time of panel beaters, painters and technicians. A service workshop, for example, might buy one hour from a technician for £10 and sell it to a customer for £40, and make a profit of £30. (These figures are, of course, notional).

Buying and selling the time of productives is, or should be, the major source of revenue and profit in bodyshops and service workshops. Profits from the sale of spare parts; oils and lubricants; paint and materials; and sublet and sundry are all subsidiary to the buying and selling of productives’ time. If you don’t sell time, you don’t sell any of these other things.

Just as you would take great care when buying and selling a spare part, you have to pay equal attention to buying and selling productives’ time – or even more so, because you cannot ‘stock’ productives’ time. In other words, if you don’t sell their time today, you cannot sell it tomorrow.

Time for sale

So once time is gone it’s gone, whereas a spare part will still be in stock. So it is a good idea to know how much time you have for sale. This would seem pretty simple. If you have six productives, and they are there eight hours every day, surely you have 48 hours for sale? Well, no, you don’t.

For a start, productives might be in the workshop for eight hours every day, but they don’t work on paying jobs for eight solid hours. For example, a customer could come back with a car that you serviced yesterday and complain that it keeps stalling. It will then be necessary for a productive to rectify the problem, and of course you cannot charge the customer for that. If it takes two hours, then you only have 46 hours left to sell, in our example.

Time sold

To complicate things further, you can actually end up selling more than 48 hours. Imagine, for instance, that a vehicle manufacturer’s standard time for a major service is two hours and you quote the customer on this basis. If your technician completes the service in one hour (unlikely, we know) then you will still charge the customer for two hours.

If this happened all day long, you could sell 96 hours less the four hours you could have sold if one of your technicians hadn’t spent two hours spent rectifying the engine stalling problem. (It’s four hours because you are selling two hours for every hour worked in this example.) So if your productives could halve the standard times all day, that’s 92 hours sold rather than 48 hours.

Three measures of time

What we are talking about here is the three kinds of time available in a bodyshop or service workshop:

Attended time – this is the time that panel beaters, painters or technicians are in the workplace available to work.

Work time – this is the time they spend actually working on jobs that, at the end of the day, a customer pays for. Clearly ‘work time’ does not include any time spent rectifying problems, or anything else they do that does not have a paying customer at the end.

Sold time – this is the time that you charge customers for. It could be the time quoted on an estimate for an insurance company, or a menu-priced service.

You could say that ‘attended time’ and ‘work time’ are both ‘real’, because you can almost see them. You can see when a productive is in the workshop, and you can see a productive working on paying jobs. What’s more, you can measure ‘attended time’ and ‘work time’ using a clock.

On the other hand, ‘sold time’ is not ‘real’. You can’t see it, and you can’t measure it using a clock. But at the end of every day you can add up all the time you have sold to customers from your job cards or invoices.

How fast and how long

If you measure attended time and work time, and add up sold time at the end of the day, you can then see how fast and how long your productives have worked during the day.

How fast they have worked is sold hours divided by work hours. In our example, that’s 92 hours sold compared to 46 hours worked, or 200% expressed as a percentage. That is, your productives are working twice as fast as the standard time.

How long they have worked is work hours divided by attended hours. In our example that’s 46 hours compared to 48 hours, or 95.8% expressed as a percentage. That is, your productives were working on paying jobs for 95.8% of the time.

Labour efficiency

What we have just worked out as percentages are two ‘labour efficiencies’:

Productive efficiency tells you how fast productives are working compared to standard times, or the estimate in the case of a body repair job – how many sold hours they produced compared to the work time it took them to produce these sold hours.

Labour utilisation (sometimes called ‘selling efficiency’) tells you how long productives worked on paying jobs compared to the time they attended the workplace.

As formulae, productive efficiency and labour utilisation are calculated like this:

Productive efficiency = (Sold Hours/ Work Hours) x 100%

Labour utilisation = (Work Hours/Attended Hours) x 100%

Overall labour efficiency

There is one other measure of labour efficiency and that’s called overall efficiency. This is a simple combination of productive efficiency and labour utilisation, and comes from multiplying them together:

Overall Efficiency = Productive Efficiency x Labour Utilisation

Or, another way of looking at overall efficiency is as sold hours divided by attended hours:

Overall efficiency = (Sold Hours/Attended Hours) x 100%

How labour efficiency affects profit

Obviously you will make more profit if you can squeeze more sold hours from the hours your productives attend. We have already said that if you buy one hour from a service workshop technician for £10 and sell it to a customer for £40 you will make a profit of £30. But if you bought one hour from the technician and then sold two hours, you will make much more profit – £70.

It is equally obvious that if you buy one hour from a service workshop technician for £10, and then the whole hour is expended rectifying a come-back job for which you can make no charge, you have lost £10. Less obvious is that you have lost the opportunity to sell two hours (in our example), and thus lost the opportunity to make a profit of £70.

So the reason for measuring time in a workshop, and then calculating the labour efficiencies, is very clear. It’s all about profit. And if you don’t measure time and calculate the labour efficiencies, it is absolutely certain you will not maximise profitability because you will not know:

How fast your productives are working as a team and individually, and whether they could work faster if they were better trained or had better equipment

How long your productives are working as a team and individually, and how much time they are wasting on work that customers aren’t paying for.

How time is measured

The most basic way of measuring time in a workshop is by using a ‘clock’ which stamps time on a ‘clock card’ for attended time and on the job card for work time. The times are then correlated manually on a ‘daily operating control’ sheet, and the labour efficiencies calculated.

However, computers have largely superseded this basic method, with the ‘clocking’ carried out using barcodes or magnetic swipe cards. The computer then completes all the correlations and calculations instantly.

Typical labour efficiencies for the Top 25%

In recent years, the labour efficiencies achieved by bodyshops and service workshops have fallen from what would have been considered the ‘norm’ a decade ago. The reasons for this are complex. However the top 25% of franchised dealer bodyshops and service workshops are still achieving reasonable levels of performance, typically:

For a bodyshop, productive efficiency averages 106%, utilisation 88% and therefore overall efficiency is 93.3% (106% x 88%)

For a service workshop, productive efficiency averages 115%, utilisation 92% and therefore overall efficiency is 105.8% (115% x 92%)

For 40-hour attended by a productive in a week, these translate as:

For a bodyshop – 40 hours attended, 35.2 hours working on paying jobs, and 37.3 hours sold or invoiced to customers

For a service workshop – 40 hours attended, 36.8 hours working on paying jobs, and 42.3 hours sold or invoiced to customers.

Why service workshops are usually more labour-efficient than bodyshops

bodyshops are clearly less efficient, but why? Firstly, jobs move between productives in a bodyshop – starting with strip, then panel, then preparation, paint, refit and valeting. Usually this means moving the vehicle physically around the bodyshop, which is far less efficient than the straight in a bay, job done and straight out situation of a service workshop. The result for bodyshops is a lower labour utilisation than for a service workshop.

Productive efficiency in bodyshops used to be higher than for service workshops, because sold hours were negotiated with insurance assessors – so-called ‘opinion times’. A bodyshop might get 20 hours for a job and the productives would finish it in 15 work hours, achieving a productive efficiency of 133%. Nowadays, the times in a bodyshop are set by computerised estimating systems with virtually no room for negotiation or ‘opinion times’.

service workshops, like bodyshops, have seen standard times fall, too. But their customer base is millions of motorists rather than a dozen insurance companies, so service managers can set whatever times they want – within reason, and of course, subject to competition.

Lost time

Obviously it would be great if you could get away with just paying technicians when they are working on paying jobs, but you can’t. What you actually pay them for is attendance, or ‘attended time’, and they don’t ‘work’ on paying jobs all the time they are attending.

The difference between attended time and work time is ‘lost time’, which is also called non-productive time – the few hours every week that technicians are paid for when they are not working on paying jobs. Three common things that make up lost time are rectification of faulty work (‘come-backs’), collection and delivery of cars, and cleaning and maintenance.

In addition to paying for lost time, you might pay bonus and overtime, and you pay for technicians’ holidays, sick leave and training. Then there is the employer’s contribution to National Insurance, and the cost of any perks technicians receive such as pension or health insurance contributions.

It’s tempting to throw all of these payments into the cost of buying the technician’s time in our example and calculate what you might see as the ‘real’ profit. If you did, the cost of buying the hour would probably be around £13, and therefore the profit falls to £27.

Accounting for time

The facts presented so far would seem to make calculating the profit when buying and selling technicians’ time quite simple. Apparently all you have to do for any period – a day, a week, a month or a year – is add up all your labour sales and subtract all your technicians’ costs (including basic, bonus, overtime, holidays, sick, training, perks and National Insurance) to arrive at your profit on labour.

You can, but it is far better to identify all your technicians’ costs separately in your management accounts, because you can then see how much you are paying them for not working. And by separating these payments to technicians, you can look more closely at the effects of labour efficiency on your operation, whether it is mechanical servicing and repair or body repairs.

The following example shows the traditional format for the management accounts of a service workshop or bodyshop. Here we have taken the results for one technician over 12 months, assuming basic pay of £12 per hour and hours sold out at an average of £60 per hour. Additionally, we have assumed that the technician attends 44 weeks per annum and 40 hours per week, working 37 of those hours with lost time of 3 hours. As a result of the technician’s efforts, the workshop sells 42 hours per week (or 1,848 sold hours per annum from 44 weeks x 42 hours), and this is achieved without any overtime or bonus pay.

Management accounts

Labour sales 1,848 hours sold @ £60 = £110,880

Less Technician’s pay for 1,628 work hours @ £12 = £19,536

Technician’s bonus pay (all bonus pay entered if earned) = NIL

Technician’s overtime pay (all overtime entered if earned) = NIL

Gross profit on labour sales (Labour gross profit) = £91,344

Direct expenses

Technician’s pay for 132 hours of lost time @ £12 = £1,584

Technician’s pay for hols, sick & training (40 days of 8 hours) @ £12 = £3,840

Technician’s National Insurance and perks = £3,744

Direct profit on labour sales = £82,176

Labour gross profit

In this traditional form of management accounts, then, the cost of the technician is divided up into no less than six lines. The first three lines appear straight after labour sales, and consist of all pay made to the technician for actually producing work that is then sold to a customer. This includes pay for ‘work time’, and all bonus and overtime pay. Accountants call these the ‘cost of sales’.

By subtracting these three lines from sales, you end up with the gross profit made from buying and selling the technician’s time – usually called the ‘labour gross profit’. The labour gross profit is often expressed as a percentage of labour sales, which in this example comes to 82% (£91,344 divided by £110,880 expressed as a percentage).

The remaining three lines appear in the direct expenses section of management accounts along with the cost of non-productive salaries, apprentices, consumables, courtesy cars, advertising, etc. The idea, as we have said, is to identify what you pay technicians for not working. In this example, the total cost of the technician is £28,704 per annum, and £9,168 is for not working. That is nearly one-third, and a far from unusual proportion!

Dividing up the technician’s pay

The way some of the technician’s pay is divided up is self-evident – bonus, overtime, holidays etc, and National Insurance and perks. That just leaves the technician’s basic pay, which is divided up according to ‘work time’ and ‘lost time’:

In our example we know the technician attends 40 hours each week and works 37 of these hours, which means that the technician works for 1,628 hours in a year (37 hours x 44 weeks), which at £12 per hour is £19,536.

That leaves three hours of lost time each week, or 132 hours per annum (3 hours x 44 weeks), or £1,584 at £12 per hour.

In fact, this split corresponds to one of the measures of efficiency we discussed earlier – labour utilisation. Labour utilisation is ‘work hours’ divided by ‘attended hours’ expressed as a percentage, or 92.5% in this case (37 hours divided by 40 hours). The split in the management accounts allocates 92.5% of basic pay as the cost of doing the work. The remainder (7.5% of basic pay) – corresponding to the technician’s pay for lost time – is allocated as an expense.

It should now be clear that labour utilisation has a direct bearing on how much gross profit is effectively produced from selling the technician’s time, and what is paid to the technician for not working.

Calculating labour sales

In our example, the workshop sells 42 hours per week as a result of the 37 hours the technician actually works out of the 40 hours attended. We have already seen that the labour utilisation here is 92.5% (37 hours divided by 40 hours). The productive efficiency can also be calculated as 113.5% (42 sold hours divided by 37 work hours), and the overall efficiency is 105% (42 sold hours divided by 40 attended hours). All these formulae were covered earlier.

The labour sales in our example are calculated by multiplying the sold hours in a year (1,848 hours) by the labour rate of £60 per hour. In full, this calculation is as follows:

Annual labour sales = 1 technician x 40 attended hours per week x 44 weeks attended per year x 105% overall efficiency x £60 per hour labour rate = £110,880

Increased productive efficiency

Now we can have a look at what happens to the profit on labour sales if labour efficiency increases. Let’s say our technician still works 37 hours out of 40 hours attended, but works faster (i.e. is more productive) and achieves 43 sold hours. The utilisation is still 92.5% (37 work hours divided by 40 attended hours), but the productive efficiency has increased to 116.2% (43 sold hours divided by 37 work hours) and the overall efficiency has also increased to 107.5% (43 sold hours divided by 40 attended hours). The effect is as follows (and we have assumed again that bonus and overtime are ‘nil’):

Labour sales

1 tech x 40 att. hours x 44 weeks x 107.5% overall efficiency x £60 per hour = £113,520

Less

1 tech x 40 att. hours x 44 weeks x 92.5% utilisation x £12 per hour = £19,536

Gross profit on labour sales (Labour gross profit) £93,984

Direct expenses

1 tech x 40 att. hours x 44 weeks x 7.5% lost time x £12 per hour = £1,584

Technician’s pay for hols, sick & training (40 days of 8 hours) @ £12 = £3,840

Technician’s National Insurance and perks = £3,744

Direct profit on labour sales £84,816

A small increase in productive efficiency – just about three percentage points – has resulted in an extra annual profit on labour of £2,640.

Improving labour utilisation and productive efficiency

So far, we have explained how to measure time in a service or body repair workshop, how labour efficiency is calculated, and how management accounts are designed to highlight the sources of labour profit. We have shown how productive efficiency affects profitability. Next, we look at the effects on profit of improving labour utilisation, and then both productive efficiency and labour utilisation at the same time.

Increased labour utilisation

Taking the same example discussed earlier, let’s improve labour utilisation by assuming that our technician manages to work 38 hours out of 40 hours attended instead of 37, while leaving the productive efficiency the same (113.5%) as in the original example. This means that utilisation goes up to 95% (38 work hours divided by 40 attended hours), and even if the productive efficiency is the same at 113.5%, then our technician will produce 43.1 sold hours (38 hours worked x 113.5%). That is, the technician’s overall efficiency has increased to 107.8% (43.1 sold hours divided by 40 attended hours).

The effect on labour profits is then:

Labour sales

1 tech x 40 att. hours x 44 weeks x 107.8% overall efficiency x £60 per hour = £113,520

Less

1 tech x 40 att. hours x 44 weeks x 95% utilisation x £12 per hour = £20,064 Gross profit on labour sales (Labour gross profit) = £93,456

Direct expenses

1 tech x 40 att. hours x 44 weeks x 5% lost time x £12 per hour = £1,056

Technician’s pay for hols, sick & training (40 days of 8 hours) @ £12 = £3,840

Technician’s National Insurance and perks = £3,744

Direct profit on labour sales = £84,816

The improvement, from one extra hour worked per week, is £2,640 in a year.

Do both!

But what would happen if both utilisation and productive efficiency improved at the same time? That is, the technician still attends 40 hours, but works 38 hours at the improved productive efficiency of 116.2% (from Part 2) thereby producing 44.2 sold hours (38 work hours x 116.2%) and hence an overall efficiency of 110.5% (44.2 sold hours divided by 40 attended hours). The calculation looks like this:

Labour sales

1 tech x 40 att. hours x 44 weeks x 110.5% overall efficiency x £60 per hour = £116,688

Less

1 tech x 40 att. hours x 44 weeks x 95% utilisation x £12 per hour = £20,064

Gross profit on labour sales (Labour gross profit) = £96,624

Direct expenses

1 tech x 40 att. hours x 44 weeks x 5% lost time x £12 per hour = £1,056

Technician’s pay for hols, sick & training (40 days of 8 hours) @ £12 = £3,840

Technician’s National Insurance and perks = £3,744

Direct profit on labour sales = £87,984

The improvement is £5,808, multiplied by (say) seven technicians is a sizeable £40,656 extra profit per annum.

This shows how significant for profitability only relatively small increases in labour efficiency can be. However, labour profits can also fall just as significantly if labour efficiency falls by an equally small amount.

Hidden lost time

If small improvements in labour efficiency translate into big improvements in labour profits, but any slight reduction means big falls in profit, then you need to know what levers to pull to make sure you are on the side of big profits. So what’s the secret? Or is it about managing the minutiae?

There’s no secret. The trick is managing every aspect of a workshop. Managers have to do everything they can to make sure technicians, panel beaters or painters are working as fast as possible for as long as possible. In other words, you must do everything to minimise lost time, and provide your productive staff with every means to support faster working like training, power tools… and even placing certain jobs with productives who are the most experienced. If you have a clutch job, then give it to the clutch expert.

But there is one secret worth knowing, and that’s ‘hidden lost time’.

As we have shown, lost time is a killer. But then lost time, if it’s measured at all, is usually about the most obvious elements such as rectification of faulty work, collection and delivery of cars, and cleaning and maintenance. However, there is a lot more lost time hidden away within jobs. Technicians may seem to be working hard, but too often they may be waiting for spare parts at the back counter of the stores. Or a technician may be waiting in line to use a piece of equipment like a wheel alignment rig.

The outcome of ‘hidden lost time’ is a fall in productive efficiency, but labour utilisation is unaffected because you haven’t measured the losses. But, as you have seen, the effect on profits can be huge. So apart from attending to the obvious and direct influences on labour efficiency, which affect how fast technicians work (productive efficiency) and how long (utilisation), workshop managers must also attend to anything that can slow them down when they are supposed to be working.

Permanent Magnetic Generators Explained – How They Work and Where to Get Them

Over the last eight months, there has been a lot of talk about free energy and generating your own energy at home to reduce your electricity costs. Many people have taken advantage of the diy instruction manuals online to build their own devices such as solar panels and wind turbines, but there are a growing number of people looking beyond those options at some less conventional approaches. Magnetic energy devices are starting to make their mark, but…

What is a magnetic generator?

The device is not dissimilar to a normal gasoline generator, but instead of working off fuels, it utilized magnetic field to generate current. Without the reliance on fuels, this device can run indefinitely without any additional costs. There is a lot of scepticism about the productivity of these devices. Some claim that it is impossible to generate free energy from a device that operates off magnetic fields, but for years ‘permanent magnetic generators’ have been sold on the market and such devices can be purchased online, particularly through the Asian markets.

How does it work?

The fundamental principle in all generators is to turn a turbine to generate current. Every generator does this in its own unique way. Wind turbines take advantage of the wind, whilst regular generators will use either diesel or fuel. The magnetic generator uses the attraction and repulsion forces found in magnets to create this energy. When holding even small magnets close to each other, one can feel the strength of the magnetic field. The turbine in a magnetic generator utilized these forces to cause the turbine to spin. Once this process has begun, the turbine will continue to spin endlessly.

How to get a magnetic generator?

Although it is possible to buy permanent magnetic generators online through various Asian companies, it is much cheaper to build your own. There are some excellent online instruction manuals that show exactly how to build a generator and as they have been written with a complete novice in mind, you will not need to know anything about engineering to succeed with such a project. At a cost of just $250 for a larger device that could reduce your electricity bills by up to 50%, this is an ideal investment.

Aftermarket, OEM, OE Auto Parts Explained

Aftermarket, OEM, replacement parts–you see these words in almost all auto parts stores online. What do these terms mean?

For a passive buyer, these things are but ordinary terms used in the automotive market but for someone meticulous and who wants the best for his auto, these things matter considerably. Deciding which among these to purchase is just like deciding what car to buy.

O.E.M. stands for Original Equipment Manufactured. This means that OEM Ford parts are manufactured by Ford itself, Chevrolet parts are manufactured by Chevrolet, Toyota parts by Toyota, BMW parts by BMW and so on. The terms O.E.S. and OE are also used; these mean Original Equipment Supplied and Original Equipment, respectively. While in many cases, OEM and OES mean the same, OE is more general referring to any part that came as original equipment on the car. Some of OE car parts and components are not actually made by the car manufacturer but are purchased and assembled by the automakers to create a vehicle.

Those referred to as “aftermarket auto parts” are not made by the original car manufacturer; furthermore, they are bought and added to the vehicle only at the dealership or after the vehicle left the dealership. In terms of design and function, aftermarket products are almost the same as the stock auto parts since they are primarily used to replace a damaged original part so that the vehicle can continue to run. If you need replacement parts for your car, however, you can either buy O.E.M. or aftermarket auto parts. There are numerous sources of aftermarket auto parts. Stores like Auto Parts Discount give you a great variety of parts for almost all makes and models.

Some cars, especially the base models are not completely equipped so users just add aftermarket parts later on. For example if you have purchased an old Toyota Corolla, you can add aftermarket Toyota fog lights, Toyota spoiler, Toyota turn signal light or Toyota mirrors. Aftermarket products can also help you give your car a fresh new look. Even if your original parts are not yet damaged or worn out, you can replace them with or add specially designed aftermarket auto parts like Honda taillights, Ford center cap, Chevrolet chrome bumper, and Mercedes Benz Front Cover Towing Eye found at Auto Parts Discount.

Enthusiasts, on the other hand would opt for custom parts and specialty equipments. Compared to a universal fit auto part, which can be installed to any vehicle make, year and model, custom aftermarket products are designed to fit only a particular application. Examples of custom parts are your Ford hood, Ford fender and Ford doors. Specialty equipments on the other hand, are intended to make the vehicle more stylish, comfortable, convenient and more up-to-date.

Most auto users prefer aftermarket products because they are less expensive than OEM replacements. While it is true that there may be some aftermarket auto parts that do not meet high standards of original equipments, it is not right to say that aftermarket products are generally inferior in terms of quality and style. Replacement parts sold at Auto Parts Discount, for example are made by car parts manufacturers that are mandated by high international standards.

Which is better, OEM or aftermarket replacement part? It depends on the product. Some OEM parts are not durable enough while the aftermarket parts you use to replace them could last for many years. If you want to give your car a different look and also, if you want to save, aftermarket products are worth a try. However, make sure to get these replacement parts from trusted sources.

Advantages of Using Car Wreckers

Disposing of old automobile parts and accessories is a difficult task that relies on innovative technology and expertise. Car wreckers have the heavy-duty tools and know-how to dismantle the wide range of vehicles that have no future practical purpose. Many of the vehicles in these yards are old, no longer operable, severely damage, or deemed to be a total write-off by insurance companies.

The process of breaking down a car and using or recycling the parts is much more favorable than using a landfill site. This not only gives an economic advantage, but also has the ability to offer environmental benefits.

Here are several benefits that relate to using the services of the car wreckers:

Saves you money

Car wreckers generally have a long list of genuine vehicle parts in stock that can be purchased at a very attractive price. Buying second-hand parts from a yard has the potential to save 50% to 90% of the store-bought prices. Before crushing the body of the car the reusable parts are removed with the intention of selling on in the future. So, for the car restorers, gear-heads, or others planning vehicle maintenance, repairs, or an upgrade, a first stop to source the required auto parts or accessories can include the car wreckers.

Environmentally friendly

Car wreckers offer the more eco-friendly solution to help dispose of an old or neglected vehicle. Cars left on barren land or landfill sites will at some point start to leak harmful chemicals or pollutants into the ground or the atmosphere. This will result in long-term damage to the local soil or water sources and make it difficult for the same ground to be used for other purposes in the future.

Nearly 76% of all parts in an automobile can be reused in another car or truck which is appreciated for its ability to give long-term benefits to the planet. Many of the salvaged materials from the wrecked vehicle are reused in the automobile industry. For instance, rubber sourced from an old vehicle can be recycled and used in the production of floor mats, gas pedals, and tires.

Earn a profit

For those planning to have their old vehicles removed by the car wreckers it is possible to get cash reward in return for some of the metallic parts inside the car. After dismantling a vehicle, the yards, rely on a high-powered magnet which has the capacity to easily collect every last piece of scrap metal which is resold to other companies that have a practical need for it.

In addition to collecting the metallic parts, the car wreckers can also drain the vehicle’s fluids like oil, coolant, and gas, which is sold on to other parties or reused in the fully functional vehicle.

Buy obsolete parts

With the speed in which automobile technology is progressing, it can be difficult to source certain tools, parts, and accessories which are deemed to be obsolete. So, for those searching for parts to fit the older vehicle model long out of production, it can help to get in contact with a local car wrecker company to see if they have the types of parts and accessories needed. Most of these services are likely to dismantle all makes and models of vehicle, so are more likely to have a greater inventory of old stock compared to the automobile shop.

In view of the fact that automobiles are one of the most recycled products, there should be no shortage of supplies need in the process of completing a future upgrade or renovation.

How to Write Great Product Demonstrations or Training Scripts

People won’t buy your products or services if they can’t figure out how to use them. Therefore, it is imperative that you find ways to help your customers understand how to get the most of your products or services. Depending on your product or service, two valuable tools for promotions and sales are product demonstrations and training sessions.

Think of how many Ginsu knives, cookware sets, and mops have been sold, just because the audience members saw how to use the products. The reason why home shopping networks are so successful is because the hosts demonstrate the products and show their enthusiasm for them. People don’t like to admit what they don’t know, but if you show them without insulting them, they will buy and use your product or service.

The first thing to determine is, “Do you need actual training or a demonstration?” A demonstration shows the audience how to use a product, while a hands-on-training session, gives the consumer an opportunity to tryout the product or service. Training sessions are more appropriate for big ticket complicated items while simpler products only need demonstrations.

Next, decide the most important features of your product or service that you want to demonstrate. How does it improve lives and solve problems? Often your sales people will know what features sell the best. Or you may find the features that when shown, change customers’ objections to the product or service. For example, a broadband Internet service provider discovered that when their customers saw the value n high speed services, such as music downloading, photo sharing and chat, they were more likely to upgrade to high speed services.

Then you need to determine what style the demonstration will take. Will it be light or serious? How can you bring creative elements into the demonstration? What will best illustrate the emotional “wow” sensation of the product or service? What style best works for your demographic?

You also have to establish a framework of analogies to work from for your demographic. For years, I taught senior citizens how to use computers. No one wanted to teach them. The training was based on framework they understood. I had to explain how the typewriter evolved into word-processing. Then, explain how word-processing transformed into desktop publishing. I also gave a history of the personal computer and the Internet because this demographic was not following the development of computers at the time. When I wrote a script about HDTV, I needed to show the aspect ratio difference between HDTV and a standard TV, the HDTV wide screen was related to the wide screen in movie theatres and panoramic views.

Another helpful device to use within in your product demonstration or training is “Good Cop/Bad Cop,” one demonstrator is the “nay-sayer” who gets won over by the good guy. Remember that in all good teaching uses the “rule of three.” A student or viewer needs to see and hear a concept three times before it is learned and mastered. The teacher/demonstrator has to find ways to repeat the concept without being condescending or boring.

The demonstration/training will be more effective if it is entertaining. This is where you can have fun with the product or service. Techniques such as parody, dramatization, music, and viewing from the inside out will add depth to the presentation. I once had an editor tell me, “After you do all your research, the story writes itself.” This axiom is often true for demonstrations. After I figure out the objective, interview the sales and product manages, use the product or service, research the demographic and understand the true meaning of the service/product, I can hear the script come to life. The more questions I ask, the better the script becomes.

Product and service demonstrations/training are valuable tools to get and retain customers. They are very cost effective and bring your product or service to life enriching the lives of your customers. Human beings have for centuries learned by telling each other stories around the fire. Bring that fire to your customers and you’ll experience blazing sales.

The Must Have Features Of A Good Auto Protection Policy

As a motorist, the only way you will be able to drive with peace of mind is when you know that you have a protection cover that good enough. There are so many auto policies out there, but only those that have important features included will save the day for you when you need it the most. When looking at a cover, you should think about must have features, should have features and could have features; it is always best that you prioritize the must have features before anything else to enjoy the kind of benefits that are truly important.

Windscreen cover – This is a must have feature in your policy. It simply means that you will have the windscreen replaced or repaired following damage claim or a loss claim. A good policy should offer good value for the repairs; you should look to find out whether sunroofs and windows are included too. Also important to check is whether there are any repairer requirements that can limit the amount payable to the claim.

Personal belonging cover – This feature will cover any damage or loss of personal belongings in case of theft in the car, fire or accident. Remember that only personal belongings that were in the car during the occurrence will be covered, but essentially debt and credit cards, money and tickets and such items are not included in this cover. Theft of items that are carried out in the open or those that are in a convertible car may not be covered too unless maybe they were locked up.

Theft and loss of car keys – The feature will cover alarm keys, ignition keys, steering lock keys and even door openers. Your insurer will pay towards replacement of the keys and locks that are relevant. It is, however a feature that may not cover you in case you leave the keys on or in the car or those that are taken by family members without your permission.

Roadside assistance – It is among the most important features you must have in your policy. There is never telling when your car may develop problems; it could happen at any given time and at any given place greatly inconveniencing you. A protective cover that also caters to roadside assistance when the need arises will save you time and money of seeking outside assistance.

Car rescue cover – When you are involved in an accident, your car may be immobilized making it difficult for you to move it. Courtesy towing feature in your policy will help you cover the costs of removing it from the scene. The cover can also help with necessarily quick solutions to keep you mobile as the car gets repaired. The details of this feature will of course vary from one policy to another, so make sure that you choose terms that you feel will come in handy when you need them the most. The more you can get from your auto policy the better it will be for you.

What Is an AGO Oil Product or Automatic Gas Oil? Finding Authentic AGO Petroleum Supply/Supplier

A recent survey conducted by this writer on the Internet for a quick, snap shot sense of the subject matter, immediately revealed that there’s a state of relatively scanty knowledge of, or information about, this particular refined petroleum product called the AGO, among international oil dealers and suppliers. In deed, in one rather remarkable instance involving a popular ‘Ask for Answers’ online discussion portal, one reader expressly posited the question, soliciting information from the readers as to what is/was ‘the meaning’ of the petroleum term AGO, among three other refined petroleum products, which he went on to list – DPK, PMS, JET A1. There was just one response – a response that has stood the same for 5 years since. Oddly enough, however, of the 4 oil products that the answerer named, the answerer was exactly accurate in the definition he proffered on three of those. But, on ONLY one of them, the AGO product, the answer given by the answerer was somewhat slightly off, as he gave the definition of the product as meaning ‘Automotive Gas & Oils.’

So, first, we start with this basic question: What is AGO Oil Product, or the Automotive Gas Oil?

What the AGO Oil Product Is

The term AGO, which specifically stands for the Automotive Gas Oil, is the name given to the fuel type that’s used by road vehicles (cars, trucks, buses, vans, and the like) that are powered by DIESEL engines. That is, in a word, it is the diesel vehicle engine fuel. In terms of how the fuel gets to be produced or manufactured, the fuel is the type that, in the distillation and processing of crude oil work, is obtained in the mid-boiling range of that process. Related fuels which are used for non-road applications including off-road diesel engines, such as the Industrial Gas Oils (IGOs), are obtained from the same ‘fraction’ of the crude oil barrel.

Technically speaking, the term Automotive Gas Oil (AGO) is the technical name used by the oil industry in describing this particular fuel. However, in terms of the ordinary consumers in the market, the term ‘automotive diesel fuel,’ or just plain ‘diesel,’ is the more commonly used and more widespread name that the ordinary consumer uses in describing this fuel. Petroleum products are usually grouped into THREE categories: the ‘light distillates’ (LPG, gasoline, naphtha), the ‘middle’ distillates (kerosene, diesel), and the ‘heavy’ distillates and residuum (heavy fuel oil, lubricating oils, wax, asphalt). This classification is based primarily on the way crude oil is distilled and separated into fractions (called distillates and residuum). Within the oil industry, the generic oil industry name that’s used to describe gasoils – which include both AGO and IGO – fall under the ‘Middle Distillates’ category, meaning those kinds of refined oil products whose ‘boiling range’ fall in the MIDDLE, that is, between those whose range fall in the higher levels or in the lower levels. (See the Chart below). As you can readily see in the Chart below, at a Boiling Range of between 520 to 650, the AGO falls right in the middle range of most categories of the refined oil products.

The Market & Primary Uses of the AGO oil Product Among Its Customers

AGO is used in two main types of vehicles: 1) the heavy-duty vehicles, such as trucks and buses, and 2) the light-duty vehicles, such as vans and passenger cars. In most countries, including the USA as well as the developing countries, the heavy-duty vehicles make up the bulk of the market for AGO. In a country such as Japan, there is a significant light-duty vehicle sector, but it is in Europe that the demand for AGO from this sector is highest, with more than one-third coming from the passenger cars and other light vehicles. Customer requirements between the two types of fuel usage differ to some extent. Diesel engines are widely used in heavy-duty vehicles. Such vehicles are frequently operated in fleets and are re-fuelled centrally with the fuel delivered directly from the supplier. In the light-duty vehicle sector, recent advances in engine design now also allow light-duty diesel engines to compete with gasoline engines in terms of the performance standards. Light-duty vehicles are generally re-fuelled through retail outlets. In any case, whether it is in the light-duty sector or in the heavy-duty sector, in both sectors the customer will generally be looking for the fuel that provides economy, power, reliability and environmental acceptability.

Use As Car Fuel

Diesel-powered vehicles, such as AGO-powered vehicles, generally have a better fuel economy than equivalent gasoline engines and produce less greenhouse gas emission. Their greater economy is due to the higher energy per-liter content of diesel fuel and the intrinsic efficiency of the diesel engine. True, petrodiesel’s higher density results in higher greenhouse gas emissions per liter compared to gasoline. However, the modern diesel-engine automobiles have a 20-40% better fuel economy, and this well offsets the higher per-liter emissions of greenhouse gases, while a diesel-powered vehicle emits 10-20 percent less greenhouse gas than comparable gasoline vehicles. Biodiesel-powered diesel engines offer substantially improved emission reductions compared to petrodiesel or gasoline-powered engines, while retaining most of the fuel economy advantages over conventional gasoline-powered automobiles.

How Crude Oil Fractions Are Processed Into Refined Oil Products, Including AGO and Other Products

How do we get to have refined petroleum products, of which a product like AGO is one? Put simply, it is out of the refinery processing (i.e., out of the ‘refining’) of crude oil that many other usable products – products that we generally refer to as refined or finished petroleum products – are produced. Meaning products such as gasoil, gasoline, kerosene, AGO, etc. The process of oil ‘refining’ or processing is a very complex one, and involves both chemical reactions and physical separations. The substance that’s called Crude Oil is composed of thousands of different ‘molecules,’ and according to chemical engineers and molecular experts, it would be nearly impossible to isolate every molecule that exists in crude oil and thereby make finished products from each molecule.

Consequently, the way chemists and engineers deal with this problem, is simply by them isolating the mixtures (also called ‘fractions’) of molecules according to what is known as the mixture’s “boiling point range.” For example, molecules for the gasoline product might boil within the ‘range’ of from 90 to 400 oF. While the range at which the home heating oil product’s molecular mixes could boil might be from 500 to 650 oF, and so on. For purposes of convenience and simplification, each mixture or fraction is assigned a specific name to identify it.

The following chart illustrates the ‘boiling range’ and name of the petroleum fractions.

Fraction

Boiling Range,oF.

Butanes and lighter

<90

Light straight run gasoline (LSR)

or light naphtha (LN)

90-190

Naphtha or heavy naphtha (HN)

190-380

Kerosene

380-520

Distillate or atmospheric gas oil (AGO)

520-650

Residua

650 +

Vacuum gas oil (VGO)

650-1000

Vacuum Residua

1000 +

In sum, refined products are products that are produced by isolating the mixtures or fractions of molecules that come from the raw crude oil, and combining them, along with those from various refinery processing units. These fractions are ‘blended’ or mixed to satisfy specific properties that are important in allowing the refined product to perform in accordance with the specifications or requirements that are designed by or in an engine, in terms of ease in handling, reducing the undesirable emissions produced when the product is burned, etc

FINDING OR OBTAINING A SUPPLY OF THE AGO

Simply stated, the KEY term and task here is finding an authentic AGO oil product supply or supplier. Or an AGO buyer, as the case may be. Why? This is simply because, today, in the international refined oil products trading market, specially in the so-called “secondary” market, probably the single most fundamental and most difficult common problem which legitimate dealers who seek to find reliable suppliers have, is often NOT so much finding a party who will claim heaven and earth that he/she has the AGO oil product to sell and can supply you the product. Or that he can buy one from you, as the case may be. BUT finding such a party who is actually AUTHENTIC & LEGITIMATE, and can actually DELIVER on the product.

MOST PEOPLE WHO SAY THEY’RE SUPPLIERS OF PRODUCT PROVIDE NO VERIFIED OR VERIFIABLE PROOFS OR SOURCES

A well-established reality and a given today, is that in world oil deals involving trading in the crude oil and refined petroleum products, specially in the so-called international “secondary” market, probably the single most fundamental and most difficult common problem which legitimate buyers frequently confront today, is the problem of the genuineness and authenticity of the supplier of product and his ability to deliver on the sales offer he presents. Refined petroleum products, such as AGO, D2, Mazut, Jet fuel, etc., are certainly not immune or exempt from such endemic problem that seems to plague the entire secondary market oil trade industry, but rather are, in deed, right in the middle of it.

It’s a problem whose central source can simply be summed up in one word – namely, that not unlike most persons or entities who claim via the Internet to be oil or petroleum products suppliers or “sellers,” most who claim to be suppliers of AGO, as well (or of similar refined oil products, such as the diesel gasoil or Russian D2, Mazut, Jet fuels, and the like), either provide NO proofs or evidence at all of that, or provide proofs or evidence that are often absolutely meaningless because they’re unverified and unverifiable. That is, for the serious or credible Internet petroleum buyer involved in the world oil deals and seriously intent on finding duly verifiable authentic AGO oil product supply or supplier, there are generally just NO such supply or suppliers of the product in the so-called “secondary” market.

Most such serious or genuine AGO buyers (or suppliers, as well, as the case may be) seeking to find equally genuine AGO suppliers (or sellers seeking buyers, when applicable) in the international secondary market, find that the problem is particularly acute and compounded by the fact that almost all “sellers” (or suppliers), or their brokers or intermediaries, that one meets on the Internet, are essentially unknown, unestablished dealers who lack any name, reputation or identity, or any known location on the planet, and lack any record or history of past performance in doing the business. In consequence, a serious AGO buyer, for example, is often being asked – and actually being realistically expected – to, in effect, merely take “the word” of some dubious, anonymous, unidentified and apparently unidentifiable, phantom “seller” or “supplier” for it, with no credible supporting evidence provided, and no verification or authentication whatsoever of the Internet seller’s offer or claims.

In sum, he’s being asked – and actually being expected – to risk, or, rather, to gamble away, his hard-earned mini-fortune of some hundreds of millions of dollars merely on such a “word.”! This, it should be added, is being expected of the buyer in a business environment and climate that is patently awash in fraud and a network of notorious scammers worldwide!

WHERE TO BUY AGO OIL PRODUCT, HOW DO YOU FIND THE SUPPLIERS?

Clearly, then, if you are a real buyer of product seriously intent on finding authentic diesel AGO oil product supply or suppliers (or those of any similar refined oil products, such as the diesel gasoil or Russian D2, Mazut, Jet fuels, and the like) – meaning one that is duly verified and verifiable – probably the most critical, vital, even life-or-death task for you, is that you had better be sure to develop, in some way or manner, a skilled and effective strategy for finding, vetting, selecting out and authenticated suppliers that can provide you reliable steady supply of the product, and which will be scam-free, assured, and long-lasting.

How?

Quite oddly enough, the answer to that question is actually not that complicated or complex. For our limited purposes here, suffice it simply to just say, that there is, in fact, such a methodology, tool and strategy for doing just that long in practical use in the industry. Long in practical use by knowledgeable, experienced and trained eyes and experts, and the successful traders, in the business. If you are, yourself, in fact a provable legitimate trader or authentic practitioner of the petroleum trade (assuming you are actually one) operating in the secondary market, and are truly serious about finding and securing authentic and reliable AGO oil product supply or supplier, or about finding and securing a buyer of equivalent caliber for the product, as the case may be, that’s actually readily within your reach. There’s just really one crucial proviso, only – namely, PROVIDING that you’re equipped with the requisite knowledge, skill, training, tool, methodology and practical experience, by which to undertake the whole process of doing so.

To be sure, true, in today’s world oil deals of the international secondary market, including sourcing for AGO product, which is largely an Internet-dominated world, and is for the most part prevalently awash in fake dealers and scammers, finding duly verified authentic petroleum or automotive gas oil product supply, suppliers and sellers of such caliber (or buyers, just as well), is not ordinary or commonplace. Nor is it at all an easy task to attain. It is, however, by no means impracticable, nor are such suppliers non-existent. Far, far from it! Quite to the contrary, such suppliers abound. It’s only that you just have to search around for such suppliers (or the legitimate buyers, as well, as the case may be) more diligently and skillfully and in the right places from the right sources, and know precisely how and where. That requires, unavoidably, supreme industry knowledge, skills set, training, know-how, connections, precious time expenditure, and experience.

FOR A FOLLOW UP

YOU WANT TO FOLLOW UP ON HOW TO FIND AUTHENTIC AGO OIL PRODUCT SUPPLY OR SUPPLIERS, OR EVEN BUYERS, THAT ARE ALREADY VERIFIED, CONFIRMED AND VERIFIABLE AND SCAM-FREE? Please see the link provided in the author’s Resource Box below.

How Electrical Engineering Continues to Change the World

Electrical engineering may seem like a boring profession, especially if the first person that comes to mind is the public utility repairman who fixed the neighborhood power grid. Contrary to popular belief, a degree in electrical engineering leads to career opportunities bigger than that. Behind some of the latest and greatest innovations is a workforce that is well-versed on the subject.

Cellular Telecommunications

A few decades ago, the first publicly available handheld phones were bulky and with bad reception. By the 90’s and with thanks to the electrical engineering developments towards GSM technologies, mobile phones soon did more than just make and receive calls. Today, it has become a race to the smallest, most multi-functional mobile phone. Headway in electrical engineering and the subsequent circulation of the science means more companies need creative individuals. And this is just to keep up with the competition. That’s not even taking into account the perks of such a world-changing occupation.

Computer Electronics

The boost in the mobile world is owed largely to the impressive breakthroughs in computer technology. These original steps forward are owed to the electrical engineering concepts behind them. Even now, electrical engineering knowhow is necessary in order to come up with devices that get continually more complex as its operation becomes simpler. Before the software developers came up with the applications that make our lives easier, someone made the increasingly sophisticated networks and computers that they are stored in. Whose midnight oil do you think was burned to make the hardware and software giants the successes that they are?

Space Exploration

Rocket science may have been ultimately responsible for putting a man on the moon. Yet it was the resolve and commitment of electrical engineering professionals that made it possible to see three-dimensional renditions of the planet Mars. It is their skills that are put to the test when equipment stop functioning or have new requirements. They continue to challenge the existing limitations by changing how we view them and the world in general. This makes them the best bet towards future journeys outside our solar system.

You may intend to follow in the innovative entrepreneurial milestones of and expert like Thomas Edison. You may idolize the large leaps and bounds in the science made by Nikola Tesla. Either way, electrical engineering has a place for you. All it asks is that you stay passionate, motivated and dedicated to persevere and make those milestones, leaps and bounds.

How Should a Mobile Car Wash Price Car Lot Washing Contracts – Price Per Car Strategies

Okay so, you run a mobile car washing business and you want to increase your revenue generation by adding some car dealership lot washing contracts. That makes sense because the car dealerships have lots of cars, and they must be cleaned to sell; no one wants to buy a dirty car right? Sure, so your next question is what price point can you charge and still make money. Not long ago, I was asked about this by an already successful car washing entrepreneur;

“I noticed on one of your posts [articles] you suggested $.85 for twice a week. Wow, can it be done for that without have the contract for detailing as well?”

He was referring of course to the synergy gained by detailing for auto dealerships and also maintaining the washing contracts as a bundled service, which is the favored strategy for mobile auto detailers and mobile car washing companies. But what if you only had the lot washing contract and not the detailing contract; does it still make any sense?

Well, yes, in fact, we had many accounts which were only wash accounts at between.65 and $.85 per car, where we did not have the detailing contract yet, for the auto dealership. For instance at the Sacramento Auto Mall, all the car lots are set on the street that looks like a giant circle, and we would have the crews going different directions on that street, and we would never quit. By the time we got done with one side of the street, it was time to start over, they just watched every day all day long.

Some of the other dealerships wanted us to be off of the lot by 10 AM so they could sell cars, which makes it tough in the winter because of the ice formation when you put water on the cars in many areas.

The detailing contracts for auto dealerships are very good when the economy is good, but you must understand that auto dealerships are very slow to pay and you don’t want to become a bank where you are doing services for them and they are paying you for three months. That just costs you a lot of cash flow and all that labor until you get your money.

Remember in a service business “cash flow” is king, everything else is just talk. You’re better off to go find something else to wash rather than letting some company string you out on payments and receivables. And remember that God made dirt on the first day, and that gets all over everything so you should be able to find something to wash other than just car lots.

It appears the mobile car washing entrepreneur agrees and is thinking here too. We used to consider car lots as busy work, keeping our crews busy and thus making money, but it was hardly our best profit center. Please consider all this.