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How to Build a Custom Motorcycle – 5 Must Do’s

Before you jump into a building a custom motorcycle project there are a few things you’ll need to look at. Building a bike from scratch is a lot different than just customizing a stock motorcycle where you can be sure that all the parts will fit. You can’t just start buying parts willy nilly and expect them to go together. Here’s checklist of things you need to do before buying anything.

1. Make a decision about what engine you plan on using. Your engine decision is critical to other aspects of the build such as frame compatibility, transmission, charging system and carburetor requirements. Buying or using a factory engine will make doing future service work much easier than grabbing some fancy large bore aftermarket engine.

2. Decide what size rear tire you are using. Again, another issue that determines other items such as wheel choice, frame usage and fender selection. Tire width affects handing and an overly wide tire will force you to use an offset transmission. You need to know all these things before you buy a frame.

3. Determine desired rake on frame neck. This is not always easy. Varying your rake also varies your front end height, proper length of your forks and is relative to front wheel height also. For an absolute beginner my suggestion here would be to find a bike you like and find out exactly what the rake, front wheel size and fork tube lengths are. Also find out how much trail that bike has as this is a key for handling. Just because a bike looks cools doesn’t mean it’s rideable. You can find frames that give the appearance of a longer and raked out front end but actually use factory dimensions. The look is achieved by pushing the steering neck a little forward and sweeping the down tubes back in a sharper than normal angle.

Once you have one custom bike under your belt, you can start to come up with your own plan. If you happen to be able to use a graphical design program such as AutoCAD you can actually design various rakes, heights and front end lengths to see what kind of trail they will give you. This may be the most critical decision in the whole process. If you make a bad decision on the front end it will affect the handling, the look and the overall height of the bike. First time out copy another bike.

4. Make a realistic list of things you will be capable of doing and things you will need to farm out, such as painting and electrical. Attempting things that are way over your head could make you end up putting this build off to the side for long periods of time. Most people can handle general assembly of parts but run into difficulties when it comes to electrical needs. Many project bikes are sold still needing the electrical work done. Often the only thing that needs done. Plan on having someone else do it if it’s not your field of expertise. Same goes with painting and especially welding. As complete as your frame may be something always seems to need welded. Plan on whom you’re going to call to do it.

5. Budget for tools and miscellaneous items you don’t already have. Simple things like placing seals in fork tubes will go so much smoother with the proper tools. You can’t assemble a bike with a set of wrenches and a hammer and there will be connectors and such you forget to buy. Always assume up to a 10% overrun on your original budget. Plan on buying additional tools as you need them, don’t try an anticipate everything you will need as some tools are highly specialized and you might make a bad purchase and end up with an expensive tool you don’t need.. And buy a lift, you will never regret it.

There will be a lot more decisions you will need to make as you go such as selection of lights, mirrors, wheels and tires but if you get these 5 things determined before you begin your project your custom bike building experience will go a lot smoother. Always plan ahead for your engine, frame, front end and wheels and find all the compatible items including your rear fender before you buy any of them. You should be flexible on most items after that as items like gas tanks, oil tanks, front fenders, seats and lighting are usually available or adaptable to anything you already have. Best of luck.

The Terms You See When Buying BMW Parts Online

If you are going to make improvements to your BMW car chances are you have searched the internet to find the best deals on BMW parts and BMW accessories. Choosing to purchase BMW replacement or upgrade parts online is a good option because it can save a little bit of money.

There are many company brands and products to select from in the field of aftermarket and OEM parts. The aftermarket and OEM parts industry use some terms like aftermarket, genuine, OEM, OEA and OES, and some people get confused with these terms. It is important that you have the right understanding of the terms to help you make right decision when buying parts and accessories to purchase.

Aftermarket BMW Car Parts

These parts are not manufactured by a subcontracted company of a major car maker. Though the manufacturer of aftermarket auto parts is not tied with a major auto maker, they produce parts that fit and perform just like the OEM as they are manufactured with the same materials and equipment.

Genuine BMW Car Parts

This term simply means that the BMW parts are presented in original BMW product packaging. The parts are always considered genuine if it has a BMW stamp on it or boxed in genuine BMW package. Take note that these parts are subcontracted to manufacturers of the particular product and not the actual BMW company. Original Equipment Manufacturer is what you call the company that produces the specific part for BMW.

OEM BMW Car Parts

Original Equipment Manufacturer and Genuine BMW part is basically the same product. However, the company has their own product packaging instead of taking it to BMW for packaging under the BMW brand name.

Original Equipment Aftermarket (OEA) or Original Equipment Supplier (OES) BMW Parts

A company could produce genuine parts for other car maker, but if they have never manufactured a part for BMW, they will never be regarded as original BMW part or OEM BMW part.

Now that you have an idea of the terms you see when you look for BMW car parts on the Internet, you can use this to make the right choice for your car. Also, check the warranty policy and credentials of the company.

How to Write Great Dialogue For a Screenplay

One of the most difficult parts of writing a great screenplay is creating captivating dialogue. The primary reason is because dialogue is not real-life speech. It might sound like it when you hear it on the screen, but if you really focus on what the characters are saying you’ll realize screenplay dialogue is much more focused.

With that in mind there are some very key elements to writing the kind of dialogue that can move a story along by creating the right atmosphere and shaping the story without just telling the story.

Dialogue Needs to Convey Emotion, Not Explain it

When you first reflect back on a movie you’ve seen you will likely see the image of the characters on the screen. You may think about the dialogue later on, but you won’t necessarily remember the words. And that is why one of the most important parts of writing dialogue is to remember to keep the lines short.

One of the most difficult parts of screenwriting for new writers is creating dialogue that evokes emotion and moves the story along without over explaining the plot, called forced exposition. Forced exposition is where a character tells the whole story or explains the action, like what some older crime dramas (think “Murder She Wrote”) have the crime buster do at the end of the story. They sum up how the bad guy was caught. It’s not particularly interesting writing. So instead focus on writing short, crisp dialogue that cuts to the chase and delivers the right amount of information.

However, writing good dialogue is not just about keeping it short. It’s also about communicating the ordinary in a unique way. You do this through subtext. It’s the meaning hidden behind the words. It’s like when a friend rolls her eyes and says, “Yeah. Great.” You know she’s really thinking that you just suggested something really stupid.

One of the best examples of subtext comes from a great book by David Trottier called “The Screenwriter’s Bible.” In it he refers to a scene from the classic movie, “Double Indemnity.” In the movie Fred MacMurray is an insurance salesman who uses an automobile metaphor to express his interest in Barbara Stanwyck. She says, “There’s a speed limit in this state, Mr. Neff. Fifty-five miles per hour.” He asks how fast he was going. She replies, “About ninety.” To which he says, “Suppose you get down off your motorcycle and give me a ticket.” She responds, “Suppose I let you off with a warning.” Now that’s some hot and steamy subtext.

Two Ways to Improve Screenplay Dialogue

Writing interesting, meaningful dialogue is not an easy task. However, you can help yourself out with these two methods.

First, after you have written your dialogue, rewrite it. Look at the words and see if you can alter them to make them more interesting or eliminate any words to make the language more concise. Instead of stating the obvious, “Shoot her so I can shoot you,” try something clever, “Go ahead. Make my day.”

The second tip is to read your dialogue out loud. Listen for how it sounds. Does it flow off your tongue naturally or does it sound awkward? Does it move the scene along and reveal something about one of the characters or could it be eliminated and not affect the story at all?

The whole idea is that screenplay dialogue should be as creative as the story idea and should enhance not detract from the action. Master concise, interesting dialogue filled with subtext and you’ll be writing great dialogue for your screenplay in no time.

Timber and Its Use in Commercial Truck Construction

Many types of timber are used in commercial truck bodywork today, and it is used in a variety of different forms ranging from sections for framing, chipboard for partitions, to faced plywood for decorative panels. Manufactured timber panels are also used in conjunction with other materials such as aluminum and plastics to produce panels for special purposes which include heat and sound insulation and to improve resistance to general wear and the weather.

Some timbers are more suitable for vehicle bodywork than others because of their superior strength, resistance to wear, decay and fire, or appearance.

Although timber is used in many forms, it is all obtained from either soft wood trees or temperate or tropical hardwoods.


There are a large number of softwood trees, which include many varieties of pine, fur, and spruce which make up about 90 per cent of all timbers used generally in the U.S.A and Europe. These trees are normally found in the northern hemisphere; most of them are cone bearing and evergreen, but there are some exceptions. In fact some types of softwoods are harder than hardwoods.

There is a good supply of softwoods and since less time is required to mature and they are easier to work they are generally cheaper than hardwoods. Softwoods are uses for the sides and floors of mineral carrying vehicles, since it is cheaper and easier to replace. It is also used for manufactured panels for other commercial vehicle bodies.


These are obtained from broad leaf trees, and there are over 2000 varieties including such well known types as oak, ash, teak and mahogany. All basal wood, which is much softer than softwoods, is in fact a hardwood, since it is the structure that decides the group not the texture.

Because the hardwoods take much longer to mature, are more difficult to obtain and work, and take much longer to season they are considerably more expensive. However, they are generally much stronger, more durable and have far more uses than softwoods.

Hardwoods are divided into two groups:-

1. Tropical. These are from trees found in Central Africa, India and South America and include the many different types of teak, mahogany and ebony.

2. Temperate. The varieties found in this group are oak, walnut, and ash are some of the temperate hardwoods found in U.S.A, Europe, Japan and Australia.

Hardwoods are used for framing and in some forms of veneer on panels for interior finishing. Also hardwoods such as ash are very suitable for curved framing members.

Manufactured Panels.

Plywood, block-board, chipboard, MDF and hardboard panels are often used instead of solid timber panels, and have many advantages. They can be obtained in larger sizes, are often stronger and are more stable, which means labor costs can be reduced when compared with other methods of covering large areas with equivalent tongue and groove jointed timber.


Plywood is made by gluing layers of veneer together at right angles to each other. This prevents splitting and greatly increases the strength of the panel. Curved members can also be produced by laying the veneers on a suitable mold or form before gluing.

Birch, ash, pine and fir are used in the manufacture of plywood but many other varieties are used for the face side of decorative panels. Plywood is obtainable in several thicknesses and sizes from which vehicle body floors can be made in one piece.

Block board.

There are a number of manufactured boards making use of solid timber core stock. One of these is block board and this consists of softwood glued together and faced with veneers of timber such as birch and mahogany. Large panels up to about 2 inches in thickness are produced and used in flooring and partitions.


Chipboard is made from graded wood chips which are bonded together under pressure with synthetic resins and adhesives to form large strong panels 0.5 inch to 1 inch thick. These can be faced with many different materials to give painted, plastic or veneered surfaces. It has replaced solid timber for many purposes and because of the sizes manufactured it is a useful vehicle building material.

Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF).

MDF is manufactured by bonding wooden fibers together using glue, heat and pressure. It is a very adaptable material, but can only be used for interior bodywork. It must be sealed / painted as it gradually emits urea formaldehyde which is a known carcinogen and eye, throat and lung irritant. Proper safety procedures should always be used when working with this material in any way.


This is another useful material which, because of its smaller thicknesses is very suitable for interior paneling. It is made from compressed timber fibers and usually has a smooth side with the reverse side having a rough or mesh finish.

Identification of timbers.

Since many types of timber are used in vehicle body work, it is possible to identify the more common ones such as oak and teak. Most types have distinct features and properties, and when samples are carefully examined it is often possible to identify a particular type. The following features should be considered:-

1. The general appearance.

  • i) Color – red, brown, yellow, white.
  • ii) Grain – close or open, straight or twisted.
  • iii) Texture – hard or soft, rough or smooth.
  • iv) Figure – shape of grain

2. Weight.

Weighing a sample is not a reliable test since the weight will depend on the moisture content and even the weights of samples may vary.

3. Use a hand lens.

Examination of the surface and end grain may reveal distinctive features.

4. Use a microscope.

The use of a microscope will enable a much closer examination of a thin section.

5. Dissolving a sample.

This will allow a microscopic examination of the shape and size of cells and fibers.

It should be remembered that features and color may be affected by the origin, rate of growth, and treatment since felling and many other factors.

Timber Defects.

One of the main disadvantages with timber is that defects may be present or may develop later. Some of these can be treated satisfactorily but others may require the component to be replaced. Some defects can be avoided completely by careful felling, conversion and seasoning, but a knowledge of the defects will enable you to make the best possible use of the timber that may be somewhat inferior.


These are not always a serious defect since in many cases timber is covered with paint, panels or other disguises and in timbers such as knotty pine they are treated so as to improve the appearance. On the other hand knots should not be present in framing timbers, some decorative panels or other situations where strength or appearance may be affected. Knots are nearly always present and timber is often graded by the distribution and number of knots present. Some timbers have more than others, so careful selection is usually worthwhile.

Splits and shakes.

Shakes appear in various forms and are not always apparent until the tree is felled and sawn into logs. Heart and cup shakes may not present much of a problem but other types such as the ring and star shakes can result in valuable timber being unusable. During the drying out or seasoning the moisture leaves the timber more quickly from the ends than the sides. If this is too rapid other splits may occur.


Many types of timber are affected by various insects, and chemical treatment may be effective. The alternative is to remove and burn the infected part and fit a new piece.

Dry rot.

Timber, which is stored in conditions which are damp or lack ventilation will lose its strength and become soft and spongy. If this happens timbers should be destroyed.


This is a common defect and is caused by uneven shrinkage during seasoning. Softwoods are more prone to this, since softwoods contain more moisture than hardwoods. Warping can be reduced by sawing the logs radially instead of tangently. If you examine the end grain of planks it is possible to decide which way they have been cut from the log.

Causes of timber defects.

  • i) Storm damage.
  • ii) Exposed growing conditions.
  • iii) Inexperienced felling.
  • iv) Incorrect conversion.
  • v) Poor seasoning.
  • vi) Bad storage conditions.
  • vii) Careless selection and use.

Seasoning timbers.

Living trees may have a moisture content of between 50% and 100% and since this is too high the trees, when felled have to be seasoned or dried until the moisture content is reduced. Timber for vehicle body work should have a moisture content of 12 %- 15%. If the moisture content is too high the timber will dry out further and shrink after use. If it is too low the timber will absorb moisture from the atmosphere and possibly swell. To find the moisture content a sample of timber is weighed in its normal condition and then weighed again after it has been carefully dried out. The moisture content is then calculated as follows:-

The moisture Content of the timber (M.C. %) is calculated by taking the wet weight, subtracting the dry weight, and dividing the answer by the dry weight and multiplying by one hundred.

The method of drying out a piece of timber to obtain its moisture content is unnecessary in practice, because electrical instruments are used to give instant readings There are a number of reasons why timber should be properly treated (seasoned):-

  • I) It is much stronger than unseasoned timber.
  • II) There is less risk of decay and attack by insects.
  • III) Painting, staining and other finishing processes can be carried out successfully on seasoned timber.

We should remember that the cells in a piece of timber are like wooden buckets. Large amounts of water in the cavities and the walls, so it is essential for timber to be properly seasoned. After the trees have been felled, the logs are taken to the saw mill where they are converted or sawn into planks or other sections. Since this exposes a greater surface area to the atmosphere seasoning time is reduced. The method used to saw or convert the logs will also affect the shrinkage, warping or other timber defects discussed previously.

Air Drying.

The sawn timber is piled in stacks with sticks or wooden strips separating each layer. This allows the air to circulate freely around each piece. The top of the stack should be protected from the sun and the rain, and since moisture will dry out more quickly from the ends of the planks, these are sometimes protected to prevent end splits. The air drying method is cheap and often leads to better quality timber, but it is a slow method, taking up to several years. The timber is liable to staining and insect attack and the moisture content is very rarely less than the surrounding area.

Kiln Drying.

This is a much quicker method, which results in timber with a more closely controlled moisture content. The timber is placed on trolleys and put in a kiln where the temperature and humidity are controlled. Air circulation may be by natural draft or forced by electric fans. Artificially seasoned timbers may be more brittle and other defects may occur, but the reduced time required is big advantage. Some timbers are air dried for a period before being kiln dried.

Timber Storage.

Seasoning timber processes may take several years and the timber may be stored for a further period before it is used. In order to keep it in good condition certain precautions must be observed:-

  • i) To prevent staining the timber should be protected from chemicals and other foreign matter, e.g. soot.
  • ii) Excessive rain and heat should be avoided and if stored indoors sufficient ventilation should be provided.
  • iii) It should be stacked in a proper manner to prevent boards becoming twisted or warped. The supporting blocks should be directly under each other otherwise the timber will begin to bend.

Wood preservatives suitable for use prior to painting.

This type of preservative is usually of a low viscosity and can normally be used prior to the application of coach or decorative enamels and their painting process. It can be applied by brush, spray or dipping and is normally allowed overnight to dry before application of the above mentioned paint systems. This promotes good adhesion and helps to reduce the problems of timber disease and rot.

Before using this type of product it is essential to make sure that it does not contain any waxes or silicone additives.

Priming of timbers.

Before the priming of any timber it is important to check that the timber is clean, dry and free from any oil residues. The timber should be thoroughly flatted with a suitable grade of glass paper and degreased with a ‘lint-free’ cloth which has been dampened with white spirits or a suitable solvent.

Priming should then be carried out using a suitable primer. It is essential when priming that all areas are adequately primed. This includes timber ends and tongue and grooves, where areas are to be covered with metal fitments or body sections. The reason for this is to prevent the ingress of moisture which would result in paint flaking.

Timbers containing knots should be treated in the following manner, prior to priming:-

I) The knots should be burnt with a blowtorch to extract surplus resin.

II) The timber should be thoroughly rubbed down and degreased as above.

III) Each knot should be treated with one or two coats of shellac, and allowed sufficient time to dry.

IV) Prime the timber as above.

Wood finishes.

These are non-pigmented finishes. Among those available are wax polishes, sealer coats, long and short oil varnishes, alkyd varnishes, yacht varnishes, single pack polyurethanes and teak oil. All these are suitable for brush application. For spray application only, use the following – cellulose lacquers, two pack polyurethanes, two pack catalyzed lacquers and single and two pack epoxies. The requirements of a wood finish are:-

  • i) Color flexibility.
  • ii) Build.
  • iii) Life expectancies.
  • iv) Acid or alkali resistance.

Sealers and wax polishes.

Sealers – These are cellulose based.

Waxes – These are petroleum based. One example is chilled wax which is fairly quick drying, gives little discoloration to the wood, and produces a good average finish.

Waxes – Silicone based. These waxes are very quick drying and produce a hard waterproof finish. The wood needs to be sealed before use, and it tends to give it a cloudy appearance.

Waxes – Beeswax. This is a natural product from honeycomb which has been rendered down with white spirits. It can be applied by brush or rag and produces a good finish that can be re-polished.

Long oil varnishes.

These contain more oil than resin in its formulation. The resin used is usually an alkyd or fossil resin. Long oil varnishes are flexible, due to the amount of oil and have good durability, making it ideal for exterior usage. It also has a fairly clear finish. Polyurethanes are used for wood which is left in exposed conditions, but tends to be rather soft for interior use. The life expectancy is two to two and a half years, and a four coat system is recommended, i.e. apply one very thin (diluted) coat followed by three full coats.

Short oil Varnishes.

These varnishes are quick drying but tend to be rather brittle. They dry to a hard finish and are more suitable for interior use, as they do not have the flexibility for exterior use.

Alkyd varnishes.

These are clear quick drying varnishes which are suitable for indoor and outdoor use. They are popular as a varnish for vehicle bodies, and are also applied as a four-coat system.

Teak oil.

This oil is easy to apply, but liberal coatings are required to restore the natural color of the timber.

French polishing.

This is based on shellac and methylated spirits. It is quick drying and causes the timber to darken. It is applied using a pad, made of a packed piece of wool or gauze, covered by a piece of cotton cloth. It is however, brittle and easily damaged by water and white spirits. It is mainly used in antique furniture.

Nitrocellulose lacquers.

These lacquers come in two types, the pre-catalyzed and the nitro-urethanes. These contain amino and polyurethane resins respectively.


There is no doubt of the advantages of using timber in commercial truck bodywork today. Certainly other materials have and will come along to try and replace it, but for its versatility and availability it is still unrivalled and will be for a long time to come.

Knowing your timbers and how to look after them will ensure the maximum life expectancy from your truck or commercial vehicle.

Selling Your Model Car Collection

You have been collecting model cars for years. When other boys were getting bikes and other toys for the holidays you were thrilled to open your packages and see the newest model cars to hit the market. In a rush you take them to your room and added them to a spot of honor on your many shelves where the rest of your collection rests comfortably. Taking your model cars out of their package would have been unthinkable. You were happy to keep them in their pristine condition until the time finally comes when you decide all is right and you can open each one in pride.

However, as time has gone on so have you. You have grown up and find yourself with much less time for collecting models than you once had. When given the choice of time with your collection or time with your family the family now wins out. You would like to pass your collection on to someone else who will be just as passionate about it as you are. At the same time you would like to get a fair value out of it since you know that some of the model cars in your collection are worth quite a bit. How do you go about doing this?

The first thing you need to do is to determine the relative worth of your collection. By checking with collectors magazines and online you can easily get the values for most of the model cars in your collection. Once you have this information you are ready to begin your search for the right buyer. If you are looking for someone quickly the best thing to do is to list them on a free Internet listing site so that you can move them easily. Another option is to sell them as a collection on an Internet auction site. There are many different ones out there so you just need to find the right one that suits your needs.

If you are looking to get the most value out of your collection and you don’t care about splitting up your collection then an auction is the best way to go. You can list each of your model cars individually so that you get the best deal. This way can be much more time consuming however as you do have to handle each one as a separate auction. If you do not prefer to go this route then you might consider another couple options as well.

If there are local flea markets in your area they make a very good tool. Many different types of collectors browse flea markets looking for new objects for their collection. Odds are you can move several of your model cars this way. If you cannot move them all at once you might speak to one of the dealers that are regulars about buying your collection at a slightly discounted rate. Usually you will find one that is happy to add to their sales items.

The other choice is normally a last choice. Many areas have a local auction house where you can take your model car collection to be sold. This is a very low paying way to sell your collection. You will not get as much as you want but if you need to move it quick then list it this way with no minimum bid. With these options in mind you should now have some ideas as to how you would like to sell your model car collection. Who knows, maybe with these gone you can begin to collect some new ones!

Which Kind Of Car Would You Choose – A Sedan, A 4×4 Or A Hatch-Back?

In their dreams, lots of folks own a fancy sports car like a Porsche but in reality they possess a vehicle that was a lot cheaper to buy. Not only are sports cars far more expensive than the average car on the street these days, they are also less practical for a number of reasons than a sedan, 4×4 or hatch-back. Thus it is debatable whether we would actually see more sports cars around even if they were a lot cheaper to buy.

Many folks choose four-wheel-drive vehicles because of their versatility. This type of vehicle, which is typically called a ‘4×4’ because of the ability of the engine to deliver torque to all four wheels of the vehicle simultaneously, can be driven off-road as well as on which makes it an attractive car for intrepid folk who like to tackle adventure trails in their spare time. These vehicles are also great to have if you like to travel to remote places on vacation and camp there because of the spacious loading bay at the back that can hold camping equipment and provisions.

Then there is the sensation of being king-of-the-road when you drive a 4×4 because the cab sits on top of a high suspension. Sitting so high up is also an advantage for the driver from a road visibility point of view. Current models of four-wheel-drive, particularly the double cab versions, are also a lot more spacious and comfortable inside than their predecessors which were basically utility vehicles designed to assist with agricultural tasks. That being said, they make great family and light commercial vehicles because they are still tough and durable.

The problem with four-wheel-drive vehicles is that they tend to be difficult to manoeuvre in tight spaces and have a reputation for being gas guzzlers even though many of them now run on diesel which is typically cheaper than petroleum. This is where the hatch-backed car comes in. So named because they possess a fifth access door at the rear that resembles an entry hatch, hatch-backs tend to be a lot more compact than the 4×4. They come in a range of engine capacities from the little 1,0 litre cars that are perfect for nipping to the local supermarket to the 6-cylinder performance ‘hot’ hatch-backs that are so-called because of their powerful engines and sporty appearance.

Let us not forget about the sedan, however, as this style of vehicle has its own merits. Sedans have a lower ground clearance which makes them easier to get into and out of, especially for older folk with restricted mobility. The correspondingly low centre of gravity also makes the sedan more stable on the road and easier to drive. The sedan also tends to have a reputation for being a luxury car due to the great numbers of high-end models to be found in this category.

Many people choose to drive a sedan simply because they like the way it looks and handles and enjoy the sensation of driving in style and luxury whilst others prefer the convenience of a hatch-back. Ultimately, the car a person chooses to drive depends as much on their personality and motoring style as it does on practical concerns.

Advantages And Disadvantages Of Ocean Freight

Ocean freight is one of the best ways of transporting goods to places around the world. Oceans cover most of the landmass of our planet because of which they provide people with a easy mode of transportation. During the industrial age, ocean freight was the only means of transportation used by the industrialized countries such as England and France. With the advancement of technology, planes started being used to transport goods as they offer people with a faster mode of transporter. Despite the popularity of planes as a means of transportation, the demand for ocean freight has not decreased.


The various advantages of ocean freight are as follows:

1. Cost-effective – compared to air freight, ocean freight services of not cost a lot of money. They offer companies with a cost-effective means of shipping all kinds of products. Companies need to make sure that they do not spend a lot of money in shipping the goods they manufacture or export, so that they can reduce their cost of operation. By opting for transportation through ships, they can save a lot of money and reduce their operational cost in the process. This helps them to sell their products to the end-users at very affordable prices, providing them with an edge over their competitors.

2. Ideal for heavy goods – companies that import heavy goods such as automobiles, industrial parts, machineries etc. will not be able to use the services of air freight services as airplanes cannot transport such heavy goods. Even if they do, the cost of transportation will be too high and outside the budget for many businesses. This is why, business organizations opt for shipping heavy goods through ocean freight as ships are capable of carrying all kinds of heavy objects. Besides, they will not have to spend a lot of money in the process as well.

3. Environment Friendly – airplanes consume a lot of fuel and in the process, they leave a very large carbon footprint, which is very harmful to the environment. Carbon emission leads to increase in temperature of our planet and disrupts its ecological balance. Ships on the other hand, leave a very small carbon footprint as they do not consume a lot of fuel, in comparison to airplanes. They are very environment friendly and offer companies with an opportunity to transport all kinds of goods, without causing minimum harm to the environment. This helps business organizations to improve their brand image.


The biggest disadvantage of ocean freight is the time taken to ship the products. Many a times, business organizations need to provide faster delivery to their clients and during those times, they need to opt for transportation through airplanes as it is the faster than ocean freight. These days, the threat of ships coming under attack by pirates is very high and when the pirates attach cargo ships, they steal the products being transported, resulting in a loss to the companies which use ocean freight for shipping and transportation of goods.

How to Find Toyota Car Seat Upholstery

If you own a Toyota vehicle you will at some time

experience the dreaded rip or tear in your seat upholstery.

This is even more of a fear if you buy your car used or

have had it for many years. However, there is no need to

worry because there are many locations where you can find

Toyota car seat upholstery to either repair or recover your

seats. The following options are great sugggesions for

finding the right option for your seat repair needs.


Wrecked cars are frequently destroyed on the outside or for

insurance purposes, but many times the upholstery on the

inside is in good condition. If you are looking for Toyota

car seat upholstery all you need to do is head to the

junkyard and look for Toyota vehicles that have the same

color interior as your vehicle. Then you offer to buy

whatever piece of the car’s interior you need. Once you

have your Toyota car seat upholstery you can remove it from

the salvaged seat and repair your seat or else you can

switch the seat out. Whatever is easiest should be done.


There are also a range of professionals that can install

Toyota car seat upholstery. For example, the Toyota

dealership is one option, although probably the most

expensive. Then, there are other car shops that focus on

repairing Toyota car seat upholstery as well. Before making

this decision you should consider the amount of damage you

have as well as what your budget is.

Repair Kits

The other option you have for Toyota car seat upholstery is

at home repair kits. There are all kinds of upholstery

repair kits available online and in automotive stores.

These kits are best used for small nicks and holes in your

upholstery as they are not perfect, although some products

claim to be. You will need to evaluate your personal

situation before deciding to use a repair kit.

Radar and Laser Detectors – Pros and Cons

Now in today’s world it seems like everyone is out for your money. One of the most frustrating and costly things to pay for is a speeding ticket. Not only does it cost a lot of money ($115 on average) it also goes on a record that can be seen by future employers. This is a fact even though points on your license go away after three years insurance compnies jack up the prices and employers can find out how many tickets you have obtained. This can be more costly than you can ever imagine.

I have been given a speeding ticket in fact two of them before I ever used a radar/laser detector. It is the most annoying thing especially if you have somewhere to go. I was nervous as can be hoping everything was up to date. After I got all checked out and tried to argue out of the ticket I was handed a ticket. They did not put the price of the ticket on it. You have to call and then mail it to the police office. The frustration does not end once he pulls away.


After the two speeding tickets that I received I started to use a laser/radar detector. The first time I used it I borrowed a friend’s. It was a very advanced laser/radar detector which cost about $300. As you could have guessed I did not get any tickets on my trip. I saw at least 10 police cars on my 3 hour drive and each and every time the laser/radar detector went of like a buzzer to alert me. It was very simple I could be half asleep and still avoid a ticket.


There were some times that it presented me with false alarms. Most of these false alarms took place in city driving most likely caused by hidden police cars or major radio units in buildings. The use of a laser/radar detector will not slow your car down or cloak you so if you think it is a false alarm and don’t slow down you will get caught.


Taking everything into consideration it is well worth the money to get a laser/radar detector. I would personally be better safe than sorry. In fact I would have more than 2 tickets if I did not start using one when I did. I can be happy to say that I have not gotten pulled over in years.

Countries Famous For Their Cars

When one starts a search for a new car, or in fact a used car, there are a number of things to consider. For example, some people may not want to travel very far to get their new car and should therefore consider dealerships that are only close by. For instance, people in New Jersey may want to buy from a Buick NJ dealership, a GMC NJ dealership, or find a used Buick in NJ. Another important factor in a good car buying decision is the budget that the person has set aside. Of course, only if cuts can be made elsewhere in the individual’s budget should they consider going over the amount they initially planned to spend. Finally, some people may consider what cars are most popular when making their decision, and that is what the next few paragraphs will discuss, is the countries with some of the best reputations for making good cars and the brand names that are associated with each country.

One country known for producing good cars is Germany. While German cars often times end up on the more expensive side of things, they really are typically worth the money with their excellent and precise engineering and good driving. Some of the more popular brands from Germany are Audi, Volkswagen, BMW, and Mercedes, all of which have a reputation as being at least semi luxurious automobiles. While it may seem funny and ridiculous to Americans, it happens that many taxi cabs in Germany are made by one of those four brands because they are domestic and therefore more plentiful in their country.

Another nation known for producing good and well made cars is Japan. Amongst the more popular makes from this country are Toyota, Honda, and Lexus, however Lexus is actually the luxury end of Toyota and therefore not their own company. Many people who purchase Japanese cars are very happy with their decisions and it is often stated on Toyota commercials that up to 80% of the Toyota Camry models sold in the past twenty years are still on the road, a very impressive feat that speaks to the durability and reliability of that particular model.

In terms of style, elegance, and pure, unadulterated luxury in automobiles nobody can top the Italians. While many of them cost more than the average American house, Italian cars are truly some of the best in the world. With brands such as Lamborghini, Ferrari, and Alfa Romeo, an Italian sports car is the must have item for all rockers, star athletes, and other millionaires. In fact, the best way to buy a car like this if one is so inclined is to try and find a model that is over twenty years old and possibly in need of some repair, because while they are still good cars you can then buy them at prices that seem incredibly low based on what they were initially worth.

Many countries have excellent reputations when it comes to car production and there are lots of factors to consider when making an automobile purchase.