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How Your Choice in Cars Reflects Your Personality

Automobiles have become an integral part of our society. Intended to be used as a tool to get from point A to point B cars have extended their use in today’s society.

This article discusses a few points on car selection and personality. Cars have long stopped being tools that get us from one point to another and have transformed into status symbols and reflect the driver’s values and personality.

Often people judge a person by the car they drive. If you are stepping out a Bentley for example, you would garner much respect from just about anyone who witnesses you getting out of the car.

The condition and look of your car has extended the mantra of your discipline being reflected on how your wear your clothes. Being seen parking a dirty car is the equivalent to going to the office in a disheveled suit. Analogously, alighting from an impeccably detailed car is the prim and proper look that many office executives are known for.

In fact nowadays what you drive adds more to your reputation than what you wear. Studies have shown than rides reflect more of the personality of the person than clothes. Cars have ceased becoming tools and have transcended into the realm of lifestyle.

Playboys want fast looking coupes while daddies are opting to get minivans. Buicks are said to cater to the less internet savvy drivers compared to Honda which has an overwhelmingly digital age buyer group.

This trend even goes to driving tendencies. Sports cars owners tend to be a little less patient on the stop light than station wagon drivers. The gigantic proportions of some SUVs tend to make their owners bully smaller sized vehicles in rush hour traffic.

Brands like Lexus are tend to be bought by wealth and well educated owners. Aside from that demographic the brand caters mostly to married couples. This reflects stability and a more settled down personality for the buyers.

Your choices in the car you are driving very much reflect your personality. Stop thinking of your car as something that takes from one place to another but take great care in choosing your car. You may not think it matters but your peers will gauge your personality on the car you drive.

Hydrogen on Demand Technology – The Pro’s and Con’s

There are a lot of people in the world today that love their car or truck, but hate the mileage they are getting. There must be a way to fix this problem. The price of a new fuel-efficient auto is to out of the question, especially when you are on a fixed income. It would defeat the exact goal that we are trying to achieve, and that is putting money back into our pocket. If I was to buy electric/gas car, sure I would save money on the fuel, which is what we are trying to achieve, but what would the hidden cost be?

· How long and how much does it cost to recharge those batteries?

· How long do the batteries last before you need to replace them?

· What is the cost of replacement?

This brings up the hydrogen on demand technology, also known as, HHO Kits, hydrogen generator, water for fuel and so on. I know there is a lot of skepticism out there, so let’s go over the pros and cons.

Here are some Pro’s why you should invest in hydrogen on demand kit:

Ø Inexpensive especially when you compare them to a new car

Ø Can increase fuel mileage up to 60%

Ø Environmentally save

Ø Increases horsepower and performance of your engine

Ø 15 times lighter than air, so it disperses easily

Ø Hydrogen is non toxic

Ø Easy to install and to maintain

Here are some Con’s why you might want to hold off on buying a unit:

Ø Can Be explosive if hydrogen is kept in a storage tank

Ø Uses power from your battery

Ø Needs to be replace after 6 to 8 years

Ø Hard to pick a certain model, too many different one’s on the market

Ø Some say they don’t work

Ø Finding a place to install the unit

In conclusion, if you are a person who is tired of paying the high cost of fuel, but does not have the money or desire for a hybrid car. Or a person who has a luxury rig and likes the comfort and doesn’t want to down size, then this is a system for you. It is an economically way to go green while saving you money on fuel and driving the style of vehicle you love.

If you’re a little skeptical and not sure about hydrogen on demand technology, by all means you may want to put off the purchase until you feel more comfortable.

I have hho kit on my full size dodge P/U and I’m enjoying the comfortable ride that I am accustomed too. The kit has increased my mileage 35% and I’m helping keep our environment cleaner.

The Benefits Of Buying Used Personal Watercraft for Sale

A Personal watercraft for sale is a great thing to buy especially if you are the kind of person that loves adventure or if you run a business where you provide them for rent. However, we all know that they are pretty expensive. For an individual adventure enthusiast shelling up these huge sums of money can sometimes be difficult. Therefore buying this great machine has remained a dream for many of its enthusiasts.

However this need not be the case at all. Advances in information technology are making it easier to locate and buy used Personal watercraft for sale. These have very many advantages over buying new especially the price. This article explains exactly how you can get a steal by buying used Personal watercraft for sale.

Personal watercrafts are subject to uneven depreciation. This is the case with most machines on sale. The depreciation in the first year is close to 30%-35%, second year is another 15%-20% and then it follows at 10% each year. Now you can clearly see that if you were to buy a watercraft which was less than 2 years old, you are getting it at half the price. Not many people use their watercrafts each day, so it is sparingly used and it hardly makes a difference in terms of use. Earlier the problem was locating someone who was willing to sell them. But now, all you need to do is click a few buttons and type a few keystrokes to get connected to an interested seller and get the deal closed in a few hours.

Buying a Personal watercraft for sale is not all. Ask any experienced buyer and they will tell you that there is a whole list of safety gear that you have to buy along with it. This can be quite a burden on your wallet. But when you buy them used, the seller most likely will have no utility for the gear as well. Also if the seller were to sell the gear separately, they would hardly get anything. Hence most used watercrafts come as a combo deal and the safety gear is available to the buyer at dirt cheap prices. This is a substantial portion of the savings.

Also financing a Personal watercraft for sale is very easy nowadays. There are many marine lenders available. At the same time, there are not many buyers so the competition gets intense and buyers get a good deal on the loan. So much so that most websites which make buyers and sellers meet actually have tie ups with lenders to offer the best rate to their customers. Since the lender gets majority of their customers from these places, they have no qualms doing it.

So if you compare the total cost of ownership of new and used Personal watercraft for sale, you will inevitably favor the latter if you have perfect information about the product and the seller. That is what the intermediaries are there for!

How to Live in Luxury in the Philippines on a $2,000 Monthly Income

Do you envy the life of luxury being enjoyed by people in developed countries, wishing you too could life such a life but lacking the $10,000 of monthly income needed for such a life? Well, I challenge you to consider living in the Philippines, either on a full or part time basis. Retirement is not a matter of age; it is a matter of having enough ongoing income. With a $2,000 monthly income (or pension or annuity), one can truly live a life of luxury. I present how this is done and list the primary expenses of living in the Philippines as a foreigner.


Manila is a bustling and exciting city, but full of congestion and expensive real estate, much as any major city in the Western world. The further one gets from Manila, the lower the cost of living accommodations. Of course, there is always the trade off of the more a remote location you to, the less comfort and Western world amenities will you find.

For this reason, I always counsel people to consider the major secondary cities of Cebu or Davao, or the Subic Bay area, or resort or university communities such as Baguio, Dumaguete, Tacloban, and Cagayan De Oro. The cost of housing in these areas is substantially below Manila, yet they have readily available air access in and out of the community, and because foreigners tend to favor residing in these areas, there are more upscale housing accommodations to select from.

The two cities with the most luxurious amenities for a Westerner, outside of Manila, are Cebu City and Davao City.

In these two cities you can expect to pay from $300 monthly for a small apartment to a high of $800 monthly for a luxury house in a gated community with a swimming pool. A similar rental in the USA would could about $3,000 to $4,000 monthly. A similar house in Manila would cost about $1,500 to $2,000 monthly, or more, depending on the location in Manila.


For the luxury life, you will want a couple of maids, one to tend to the cooking and shopping, and another to tend to the laundry and house cleaning. They will do all the grocery shopping (at a lower cost than you could ever get), wash and iron all your clothes, and have your favorite food ready for you at each meal. A real luxury which is completely unaffordable in the Western world on $2,000 per month. Two maids would cost less around $100 to $120 monthly.

A driver would probably be desired should you choose to purchase your own automobile. While living in Cebu City a few years ago, I had a new vehicle that I drove myself, but I found quickly that by hiring a driver for $80 a month, the vehicle was always kept in immaculate condition, and I had someone to tend to the vehicle while I was at restaurants, shopping, or at business appointments. I never had to worry about where to park the vehicle or petty theft or destruction of the vehicle. While living in Butuan City I tend to not use a personal vehicle as much, but I have found it still worth having a driver.


With $2,000 a month income, I would not opt for local Philippine health insurance programs, rather I would purchase an international for foreigners living overseas. Depending on your age and any preconditions, a policy for which you would pay $500 monthly in the USA would cost you round $200 monthly.


With your housing, maid services, transportation and health care provided for with approximately $1,200 monthly, this leaves you $800 monthly everything else. Utilities (electric, water, phone, cell phone, high speed internet service and cable TV) will add up to around $150 monthly, bring the cumulative total to $1,350 monthly.

This leave $650 monthly for food, entertainment, fuel for your car, travel, personal care items. Groceries will be about $250 monthly, and fuel and personal care items might total $50 monthly, which leaves around $350 for meals in restaurants, entertainment and travel. Eating dinners out a couple of times a week and monthly entertainment would cost around $200 monthly, so you would still have $150 monthly of excess funds for savings.


Each is different from the other in many ways, and Davao City living costs are less than those in Cebu City, so your lifestyle there can be even greater.

Cebu has a large population of foreign retirees in relation to its population. Foreigners are drawn to its abundance of beaches and resorts. It is a beautiful city, surrounded by mountains on one side and the ocean on the other. Like Manila, it too has its upscale, modern shopping malls, casinos, and a great night life.

Those who love living near the seaside, have interests in diving and other water sports, yet like the efficiency and amenities of a smaller modern city, then Cebu City would be your choice.

Davao City is THE city of Mindanao, and by square miles it is the second largest city in the world. Its population is approximately 1.4 million. Located on the southern of Mindanao, it is the more rural of the two cities, and it has the lowest cost of living. So, if you enjoy the lifestyle of a large city, and want more money in your pocket at the end of the month, then Davao is the place for you.

Davao City does not get large numbers of foreign travelers as does Cebu City, yet for those seeking outdoor adventures, the options are plentiful. Living in Davao is a bit like living in both an urban and a rural city, as the city has modern shopping centers, upscale gated communities and hotels, yet living there you become deeply rooted to the land outside the city.

The important thing in living in the Philippines is to do your research, based on your wants, needs and desires, and tie into someone who has gone before you and can provide you wisdom by guiding you through the array of questions and anxieties.

Legal Disputes of the Future

Who owns food? Who pays for this accident? Who owns my face? Who owns the Arctic? Who owns the Pacific Ocean? Who owns the sky? These sound like some ridiculous questions at first glance but let’s take a second look at the future through the Great Karnak’s trusty crystal ball.

Who owns food?

Let’s start with this one, since it has, more or less, already taken place. A small landowner in Nebraska named Bill parks his tractor in the shed after a long day of work in the fields. He wipes sixteen hours worth of sweat off his brow while he opens his mail. All bills. Two men in dark suits approach him at the front door and hand him a subpoena. The farmer opens the subpoena, quite surprised to learn he’s being sued by a major U.S. corporation for copyright infringement. It’s a huge settlement they’re after – in the millions. He doesn’t have one tenth of what they’re asking in damages. Since he sits on a tractor most days, he hasn’t got the faintest notion how he could be named in a suit for copyright infringement. He’s certain they’ve got a case of mistaken identity and places the document at the bottom of a pile of correspondence, making a mental note to consult his lawyer about what to do with the nuisance suit.

Rest assured, it’s no mistake. The large U.S. corporation spent millions in developing a strand of DNA for corn that is resistant to a pesticide they also own. When you buy their corn seeds and use their pesticide for your crops, you’ll get excellent results. They copyright the strand of corn DNA they worked to develop. To protect the investment in DNA research they hire over seventy-five corporate lawyers to aggressively prosecute copyright ‘thieves’. They have to establish a legal precedent that attracts a lot of publicity; they intend to branch out into other food stuffs, such as eggs that last longer on the shelf, wheat that produces heavier grain, chickens that add weight quickly, beef that responds to their brand of steroids in cattle foods. The list is endless, and it’s all going to be done by protecting copyrighted DNA strands.

Bill consults his country lawyer about the suit, explaining that he has stolen nothing in his life from anyone. The lawyer does a bit of researching and discovers he’s opposed on the brief by some of the best legal minds in history, paid for by a Dow Jones multinational. He first explains to the multinational that his client doesn’t know how the patented corn seed got into his fields. Possibly the seed cleaning company that strips seeds off Bill’s corn for next year’s crop has intermingled patented seeds with his. He tries to offer a settlement but this is not what the corporation wants. They want a trial. They wish to establish for the record that they’re prepared to sue if anyone grows their corn without paying them for the seeds.

Bill and the country lawyer lose the case which costs him more than he can pay in damages and legal costs. He appeals. The appeal also loses right up to the Supreme Court since copyright law is sacrosanct in the U.S. Intellectual property, in this case a section of DNA, is property protected by the highest court in the land. Bill’s house, farm and equipment are sold at auction to the highest bidder, and the proceeds given to a multinational worth more than a quarter trillion in market cap. The proceeds don’t cover the cost of one of the lawyers for one year, but they’ve earned an important victory – they own food.

Who pays for this accident?

Late June, 2016. A new electric car with one occupant is proceeding along a Florida highway within the speed limit. Up ahead, a tractor trailer crossing the pavement at an intersection blocks the way. The driver, who has the vehicle on ‘auto-pilot’ is reading work-related files and doesn’t see the upcoming collision; he trusts his car will react properly and put on the brakes, as advertized. The software or hardware on the car malfunctions, the result is that the car smashes at full speed into the trailer blocking the road, disintegrating the car and killing its occupant.

Within hours of learning of the crash, the vehicle manufacturer issues a statement: ‘Neither the auto-pilot nor the driver saw the tractor trailer in the blinding sun’, trying to diminish responsibility by including the driver’s inattention to the road. A sharp lawyer advises the family of the deceased to sue, since, by definition, he was not the driver; the car company’s software was driving. The driver of the tractor trailer is found blameless because it was possible to avoid the accident, just as every other vehicle did in this situation.

The impending lawsuit sends shivers down the corporate world’s spine. Will they be forced to halt production of their cars? Offer compensation in the billions as GM or Ford experienced? Will it affect future car sales? Will there be expensive recalls? Their very survival hangs in the balance on the outcome of this legal battle. The car company uses as its indemnity the disclaimer every software user accepts before they can switch on the ‘auto-pilot’. Use at your own risk, they say, just like all software. If a calculator gives you the wrong answer, is the calculator manufacturer to blame if you make a wrong bid on a billion dollar tower construction and lose your shirt because of it? No, it’s the user’s responsibility to check all calculations.

Not so fast, says the family’s lawyer. I present to you as evidence sales material from the car company showing people in these cars on ‘auto-pilot’ busily reading files related to work, texting on their phones, eating sandwiches and coffee, streaming movies. The company has promoted the auto-pilot as reliable, in fact more reliable than humans. The manufacturer, in order to sell the product, has accepted the responsibility for the safety of its passengers, or users, by heavily implying that users can relax while the software guides them safely to their destinations. It’s the car company that killed their client, no one else, by encouraging the car buyers to trust the software to the extent that they don’t have to pay attention to the road ahead. Why else would you buy it?

Insurance companies are prepared to fund the legal challenge to a successful outcome. They want a clear definition of who’s at fault before they begin underwriting any more policies. Driverless car manufacturers are rushing headlong into the intersection of Lawyer and Technology Streets with their eyes closed. Keep watching this space, you’ll never see a bigger smash-up.

Who owns my face?

Brad Pratt is a famous movie star. His wife Angie Groaner is too. They’re fed up to the teeth with being filmed by paparazzi. Brad is filmed in public toilets. Angie is filmed at the doctor’s office. What gets them most upset is they’re captured on film with their kids. They don’t have a moment to themselves, not even after they move from the U.S. to the outskirts of London, England. Every time they walk past a newsstand they look the other way so they don’t have to read headlines about themselves in stories they didn’t sanction. Angie especially deplores the stories depicting her children as alien babies. Paparazzi invade their lives every waking, sometimes not waking, moment.

That’s the price of fame say the news organizations. Bullpoop, says Brad, and I’m going to come up with a way to stop it. Unbeknownst to the so-called ‘news’ media, Brad and Angie consult with the best legal minds and come up with a solution: trademark their faces.

A trademark is the copyright of an image related to the conduct of business, and since Brad and Angie’s faces are their business (worth millions), they’re well within their rights to trademark their mugs. They take a 360° view of their faces and deposit them with all the necessary paperwork at every major trademark registration office throughout the world.

They can’t wait for their first lawsuit to prove the concept. Soon, a tabloid prints the story, ‘Brad and Angie Have Alien Twins’. The photographer and Celebrity Ogler are served with an invitation to attend court in every country in which they publish.

The photog is a nobody with a camera. He’s paid up to a quarter of a million dollars for candid shots depicting Brad on the toilet or Angie in a dress shop changing room. He explains that Celebrity Ogler paid him to take these pictures on a spec basis. The more revealing and damaging the photo, the more they get paid, so anything goes, regardless of the rules of common courtesy or decency.

The publisher, Celebrity Ogler, claims that the two famous people made their millions by being in the public eye, and if it weren’t for news and tabloids, the couple would be living in anonymity. They benefited from free publicity for their rise to stardom and now it’s simply inconvenient to them. They also argue in most countries, it’s their constitutional right to publish news stories related to anyone, regardless of their position in society. What if they were guilty of murder, could we be prevented from displaying their pictures on newspapers?

Pratt and Groaner’s legal team argues that their trademark, central to their business of making films, has been used without their permission and that both the photographer and the publisher have profited using someone else’s copyrighted image. These magazines are not reporting ‘news’; they rely on sales of their tabloids based on the already established popularity of their subjects. Now that they have trademarked their faces, the defendants have profited off someone else’s popularity and their image.

The court rules in favor of the plaintiffs. They’re awarded damages and any further use of their trademarked images can only be done by permission. It will be a very long time before Pratt and Groaner give permission for strangers to take their picture. A new business for trade-marking faces is spawned.

Who owns the Arctic?

In the 1850’s a British expedition to find the Northwest Passage through the Arctic Ocean goes missing for over a hundred years. Fast forward one hundred and fifty years. Due to global warming the ice pack has melted and it is now possible to sail year round through the Arctic Ocean.

Oil is discovered outside the new economic exclusion zone and Canada protests the invasion of oil drilling wells from the U.S., taking the case to the World Trade Organization and the United Nations. Canada claims sovereignty of the Artic to the North Pole. The U.S. says, ‘See you in court. No one can own an international waterway.’

Who owns the Pacific Ocean?

In a mirror image incident in the Pacific Ocean in international waters off China, barges filled with earth drop millions of tons of rocks and slurry to create a small land mass. The Chinese fill enough of the ocean to create a tiny island in the Pacific large enough to plant their flag. They then declare an economic exclusion zone of two hundred miles in all directions and begin drilling for oil.

The American navy sails through the disputed waters. Certain of the rightness of their cause, China begins sending belligerent diplomatic notes of protest to the United States and the United Nations. The U.S. does not recognize their sovereignty in an international waterway by the artificial creation of a land mass. The Chinese are ready to start a war and take pot shots at the U.S. navy in what used to be international waters. Tensions come to a boil before the case can be heard in international courts. The Chinese threaten to begin a war with the U.S. over the issue.

The U.S. responds by entering trade agreements with India and setting up manufacturing facilities for a wide range of consumer items, directly competing with cheap Chinese labor. Twenty years after the shift to India, the U.S. and its allies block all further Chinese imports.

Who owns the sky?

Fred and Harriet are having dinner in their isolated country home. They’re having Fred’s favorite recipe – Mulligatawny soup. An object crashes through the roof and kills the couple outright. Upon investigation, the object belongs to Grooble, a technology firm developing driverless cars. One of their satellites, while repositioning itself to a new orbit, received an incorrect set of coordinates from the controller and crashed back to earth, landing on hapless Fred and Harriet, and the soup tureen. The pieces of wreckage found clearly indicate the ownership of the fallen satellite. Fred and Harriet’s heirs file suit.

The ownership of a piece of land includes the space above and below it, with no defined limit. If you wish to build above the land five hundred stories high there can be no legal objection to it. The plaintiffs argue that their property rights are infringed at any altitude and Grooble was encroaching on the couple’s right to ownership of their property, even though the satellite might have been hovering six thousand miles above them. Since the satellite owners accept the premise that the hardware might malfunction for any number of reasons and come crashing back to earth, they knowingly encroached on property they do not own.

The Grooble Corporation argues that international agreements have determined space (defined as 62.5 miles altitude) to be outside the purview of local property laws. The heirs of the property owners claim that once the satellite re-entered the atmosphere, it was no longer subject to the laws that govern space and are therefore seeking damages afforded them by local property rights, the same as they would if an airplane dropped on their house.

Looking back we find it hard to believe some of the cases that were heard to defend people’s rights and property. The Scopes trial of the Twenties comes to mind, which defended an educator’s right to discuss evolution. A divisive question for its time, a mere ninety years later, it’s almost irrelevant, replaced by the new issues that arise with the advent of technological discovery. The conflicts these new challenges create will burn brightly in their time, setting one against the other in tumult and violent upheaval until, just like all issues, the unveiling of new eras and new civilizations will make them pass into irrelevance. But is mankind now changing too quickly to adapt to new situations? For instance, will we pollute and kill all marine life in the oceans before we can develop legal frameworks to stop it? Will a country poison the atmosphere for the rest of the world? Will nations figure out a solution to global warming before it’s too late? Will DNA continue to be copyrighted preventing food from being grown by private citizens in times of starvation? Will space be cluttered with so much debris as to make it unusable? Legal disputes of the future are extremely difficult to predict but their outcomes greatly impact our societies.

Tire Bulges and Indents: Does Your Tire Have a "Spare Tire?"

Bulges and indentations can be nothing to worry about or a serious problem.

Being made out of rubber (and a bunch of other stuff, but we’ll stick with rubber for now) tires are pretty flexible. They need to be, in order to deal with changing road conditions. Tires made entirely out of stone, regardless of what cartoonists would have us think, simply don’t work very well.

It is this very flexibility that helps to give modern tires their strength and resilience. However, it can also lead to indentations and bulges.

There’s nothing unusual about small indentations in the sidewall. These indentations (or “undulations” as they are sometimes called) are a purely visual condition. Tire performance is not affected at all. In fact, they are very often found on radial tires as a characteristic of the tire construction process. The indentations are more noticeable on larger tires, because of their taller sidewall, and on tires that operate at the higher end of the inflation pressure scale.

Tires are reinforced with cords of fabric, usually a synthetic such as polyester or nylon. Radial tires have at least one layer of these cords, more if it is a heavy duty tire. The cords run parallel to each other but sometimes overlap. This overlap can cause a slight indentation when the tire is inflated to full pressure.

These indentations may not look great, but they are harmless. Even if they appear on a newly installed tire you have no cause for alarm. The same cannot be said for bulges.

Bulges appearing on the sidewall of a recently installed tire are definitely bad news. In most cases, these bulges are the result of a space between some of the body ply cords inside the tire. When this happens with new tires the solution is simple: return the tire.

This situation is almost invariably covered under the manufacturer’s warranty. This is a workmanship/materials defect, and it is not the fault of the technician that installed the tire. Although tire manufacturer’s do a lot of testing before the tires reach the marketplace, this is a problem that just doesn’t show up until the tire is installed and inflated.

If you’re tires have developed a bulge a significant amount of time after being installed, then it probably isn’t the materials that are at fault. Ply cords, though by no means delicate, can be damaged by impacts with curbs or road hazards, or by running into potholes. If this happens, it’s time for a visit to your local tire dealer.

Accounting Sub Journals and Cash Book

The accounting procedure, for recording information, involves two steps, namely journalizing and posting. It follows that every business must maintain a journal (books of original or prime entry) and a ledger (principal book). Thus the system of book-keeping originally envisages that all the transactions must be recorded first in the book of original record, i.e., journal and then each transaction so recorded in the journal should be posted in the principal book, i.e., ledger. Subsequently it was experienced that the labor of recording each transaction with narration in the journal and then posting each entry in two different accounts in the ledger was enormous. The procedure was more time-consuming and resulted in higher establishment cost.

It is but natural that in every business most of the transactions relate to receipts and payments of cash; purchases of goods ;. sales of goods etc. It was found to be convenient and economical to keep separate books to record each particular class of transactions. Each separate book meant to record transactions of a particular class is the book of original or prime entry. It is also known as sub-journal or subsidiary book. The system under which transactions of similar nature are entered in the relevant’ subsidiary book and on the basis of which ledger is written is known as the ‘practical system of book- keeping’. This system reduces labor and time of recording the transactions as impersonal accounts, viz., sales account, purchases account etc., receive the posting of totals and not of individual transactions. However, this system also conforms to the basic rules of the double entry system.

Generally the following subsidiary books are used in the business:

(1) Cash book : records receipts and payments of cash including transactions relating to bank;

(2) Purchases book: records credit purchases of goods meant for sale or for conversion into finished goods;

(3) Returns outwards book: records return of the goods to the suppliers due to several reasons;

(4) Sales book: records credit sales of the goods dealt in by the business;

(5) Returns inwards book : records the return of goods by the customers to the business ; (vi) Bills receivable book: records the receipts of bills of exchange, promissory notes and hundies of various parties;

(6) Bills payable book: records the issue of bills exchange, promissory notes and hundies to the various parties:

Advantages of sub-journals

(1) It results in saving of time by (a) enabling the recording procedure to be carried on simultaneously in different subsidiary books and (b) by posting the periodical totals in the impersonal accounts.

(2) It makes information available regarding each particular class of transactions.

(3) At the time of preparing trial balance the checking is easier because books being many, different persons can carry out the job.

Cash Book

In any business, perhaps, the largest number of transactions of one nature must relate to cash and bank. It is so because every transaction must, ultimately, result in a cash transaction. Now if every cash transaction is to be recorded in journal, it will involve an enormous amount of labor in debiting or crediting cash or bank account in the ledger for each transaction. Therefore, it is convenient to have a separate book, the cash book, to record such transactions. Maintaining of cash book removes the necessity of having cash and bank accounts in the ledger. This book enables us to know the balance of cash in hand and at bank at any point of time.

Cash book consists of cash and bank accounts taken out of ledger and maintained separately; thus it is a substitute of ledger for cash and bank accounts. It is also a book of original entry because cash and bank transactions are not recorded in any other subsidiary book.

Types of cash books

The type of cash book to be used by any business will depend upon its nature and requirements. It may be anyone of the following:

(1) Single column cash book (cash column).

(2) Double column cash book (cash and discount columns).

(3) Triple column cash book (cash, discount and bank columns).

(4) Bank cash book (bank and discount columns).

Generally, each business will use anyone of the above types of cash book along with “petty cashbook” which is maintained on memorandum basis.

Distinction between cash A/c and Cash book

Actually cash book is a perfect substitute of cash account. In both, cash transactions are recorded date wise in order of occurrence. Cash balance as on any date can be ascertained by balancing both on any day desired. Yet there are some differences between the two as given below:

Cash account

1. Is an account in the ledger.

2. Cash account is part of the ledger. Cash account is opened in the ledger in which posting is done from some book of original entry i.e. journal

3. In cash account posting is not followed by narration.

4. It only records one aspect of transaction involving cash and bank.

Cash book

1. Is a separate book of accounts forming part of accounting system.

2. Cash book records entries directly from transactions and these is no need for a book of prime entry.

3. In cash book entries are followed by narration also.

4. It records both the aspects of this transaction in cash and bank columns to complete double entry posting.

Secrets to Selling – Hold the Cheese, Please

Several years ago I bought a car from this auto mechanic in Glendale. Before giving him the money, I had a shop a few blocks away check it out. Coincidentally, all the mechanics at this place knew the guy I was buying it from. “Hey, isn’t this Ray’s car? Look how clean the engine is. Looks like he went at it with a toothbrush! That Ray, what a guy.” Instead of inspecting the car, they leaned up against it and put their sodas on it while they regaled me with stories about Ray’s kids and how that one time he let them borrow his air drill.

My regular mechanic couldn’t see it for a few more days, and I was scared someone would buy it before I did if I waited, so I figured, what the hell. Ray’s a mechanic, I’m sure he took great care of it. I’d just buy it and trust that Ray was as honorable as they said he was.

Four thousand dollars of crapped out batteries, leaky radiators, leaky oil pans, leaky convertible tops, leaky power steering systems and faulty brakes later, I realized I’d been duped. (Ray’s Auto on Colorado Blvd. in Glendale ladies and gentlemen. Throw a tomato for me next time you drive by). Ray sold me a turd of a car, but it’s my own dumb fault. He wouldn’t look me in they eye when we sealed the deal, and I’ve gotten stronger handshakes from my half dead grandma. He was basically screaming at me not to buy his car, and although I knew in my gut that it was a bad idea, I did it anyway because you should have seen how sexy that thing looked with the top down.

I bring this story up because I’ve been doing a lot of talking about sales lately. I seem to find myself at a seminar per week these days and I’m always fascinated by how people sell, and how people react to being sold to.

“Sales” is a dirty word in our culture. It’s seen as sleazy, dishonest and out to harm. But why? Yes, there are lying, manipulative, greedy people out there who are in it only for the cash, but if you think about it, we’re all selling, all the time. To have such negative connotations around the process is not only incredibly unproductive but really unhealthy.

Whether you’re selling yourself and your book proposal to a prospective agent, selling handbags, selling your wit and charm to a first date, you are selling. Even if you don’t have a business, if you’re a stay at home mom, you’re just as selly as the rest of us. Ever try to sell your kid on the idea of taking a bath? Eating his peas instead of shoving them up his nose? Not screaming his head off on a plane? We wake up in the morning and try to sell ourselves on getting out of that warm cozy bed.

So…I suggest we not only scrape the cheese off the idea of selling and embrace it, but learn how to make it really work for us. Next time you have to sell something, keep these things in mind:

1.) You are a good person. You want to help.

Do not sell from a desperate, I gotta make some money, you gotta help me and I feel dirty about it approach, but instead think of how you can be of service. Think of why you’re selling what you’re selling, what it means to you and how happy that person will be when they buy it.

2.) Sell one thing at a time.

I recently bought a new digital camera and spent about 1/3 of my life sifting through all the choices. If someone had come along and shown me just one pristine, perfect camera with all the features I needed, I would have been so much happier (I know my cred as a smart buyer is suffering after the car thing but seriously)…a confused mind doesn’t buy. Sell one thing at a time, sell it well and you’ll do much better.

3.) Lead with your biggest benefit.

Ray saw me coming a mile away. Clearly, the biggest benefit of that car was that it looked good and the top went down. And clearly that was all I obviously wanted in a car because that’s all I got. Put your biggest benefit in your headline, in the title of your book, in your first sentence, on your business card, in front of your shop – wherever it’s most likely to be seen and heard, and it will reel your customer in.

4.) Be a person not a pod.

Always remind yourself why you’re doing what you’re doing and how you’re doing it differently from everybody else. Put a bit of yourself into it and it will be more genuine. Also, talk to your customer directly, person to person rather then lumping them into a group. People like to feel a connection and like to buy from people they trust. The more of yourself you can put into your sales pitch the better.

5.) Give details without boring them to death.

Work out a brief way to describe exactly what you do or sell so people can figure out if they want what you have to offer. The longer it takes you to get to the point, the more chance they have of pretending they have to go to the bathroom to get away from you in the middle of your pitch. The clearer you are, and the quicker you are, the easier it will be for them to buy from you.

If you’re too caught up in not wanting to be “salesy”, you’ll never put yourself out there and the people who could benefit from your products and services will never reap the benefits. And where’s the fun in that?

Repossessed Car Actions Online – How to Buy a Cheap Repossessed Car Online!

Did you know that there are repossessed car auctions online, where you can find extremely cheap cars in a very good condition?

Buying a car from a government auction can help you save thousands of dollars. In fact, it’s not uncommon to find cars up to 95% off their regular price. Every day, thousands of vehicles like SUV’s, motorcycles, MPV’s, trucks and RV’s get seized by banks or government agencies. It costs a lot of money to the government to store these vehicles and this is the reason why they reduce the price so much in order to sell the cars as quickly as possible.

But, how do these automobiles end up in an auction?

Many times these automobiles were bought by individuals through bank financing loans, which they failed to pay off. So, the banks repossessed them to minimize their losses. Other times, these vehicles get confiscated from people who have committed crimes or any form of fraud.

So, how can you find your dream car in an auction?

The problem with these auctions is that they are not usually widely publicized. They simply come and go and you don’t even know that they exist. One solution to this problem is to start looking for auction listings in your local newspaper.

However, if these classified ads are inside a widely read newspaper, many people will see it and you may end up facing a lot of competition. Also, if there are many bidders the price of the vehicle will increase.

The best way to locate a car auction is to visit an online database. There, you can start your search by brand like Honda, BMW, Ford, Toyota, Audi and so on, by type such van, sedan, mini-trucks and of course by location and price.

This way you will be able to find your dream vehicle as fast as possible and from the comfort of your own home. These databases ask you for a small fee, but the good news is that they let you conduct as many searches as you wish.

You can use these websites to locate the vehicle, but before you commit to buying it, you need to make sure that it’s in a good condition. Also, you need to decide ahead of time how much money you are willing to spend. If you are the highest bidder, the auctioneer will expect you to pay for the full amount. However in most cases, they do accept credit cards and personal checks.

If you see people who change cars all the time without being millionaires, online repossessed vehicle auctions are probably the answer. Many times you can find a vehicle with only 1-2 thousand dollars, even though its retail price is $20,000.

Now pay close attention here!

What Is the Difference Between a Standard Battery and a VRLA Battery?

Valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) batteries are commonly referred to as sealed lead acid batteries, and are lead-acid based rechargeable batteries that require little to no maintenance. A common feature to this type of battery is as the name implies, they are always manufactured to be a sealed battery with a built in safety pressure relief valve. If the sealed lead acid battery were to ever be inverted or in any other position than upright, the battery is incapable of leaking and cannot spill its electrolyte (battery acid). Also, when the typical lead-acid based battery is recharged at a mild to high voltage, it will emit gases which can be considered dangerous if emitted in large quantities. Since the VRLA battery is sealed, when the battery is put on charge it relies on its built in pressure release valve to alleviate the pressure from the gases which build up inside the battery. The release valve emits small trace amounts of these gases and has enabled any VRLA battery to be placed in small units (such as battery backup systems) inside buildings or offices without worrying about harmful gasses being emitted. These batteries are further divided into two sub groups know as absorbed glass mat (AGM) batteries and the gel battery.

The AGM battery differs from other lead-acid batteries because it uses a glass mat separator to hold its electrolytes in place. These mats allow for the AGM battery to accumulate the highest frequency of acid available and never spill a drop. It was developed in the 1980’s by Concorde Aircraft battery, their intention was to create a warm weather, vibration resistant chemical alternative to the current expensive batteries being used in their fighter air-craft technology. Today the AGM is applied in motorcycles as well as many automobiles. They are also frequently used in remote sensors and cold environments due to their lack of free electrolyte they will never corrode or crack.

Pros to the AGM Battery:

  • They have low internal resistance allowing then to be charged and discharged rapidly
  • They are maintenance free
  • Will not corrode their surroundings because the acid is trapped in the matting
  • Handle vibration very well

Cons of the AGM battery:

  • A tad expensive being nearly double the price of a flooded cell battery
  • They don’t accept overcharging as it burns the electrolyte which is irreplaceable in the AGM model

Finally the Gel battery, sometimes called the gel cell, is unique due to its untilization of gelified electrolyte. The gel is created by sulfuric acid mixed with silica fume, causing it to become an immobile gel mass. The gel cells are almost extensively used in power wheelchairs because of their extensive deep-cycle capabilities and low acid output. Both types of VRLA batteries are widely used in aerobatic aircraft due to their knack for withstanding various flight altitudes and their large ambient temperature range.