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Automobile Dealerships – Valuing Blue Sky

Blue Sky is the intrinsic value of an automobile dealership, over and above the value of its tangible assets. It is sometimes equated to the goodwill of a car dealership.

Most articles regarding the blue sky value of new car dealerships cite a multiple of earnings formula, such as three times earnings, four times earnings, and so forth. The idea that “blue-sky” can be determined by anything times anything is just plain wrong.

Even NADA the National Automobile Dealers Association in its publication entitled “A Dealer Guide to Valuing an Automobile Dealership, NADA June 1995, Revised July 2000 bemuses, in part, with respect to valuing a dealership by using a multiple of earnings: A Rule of Thumb valuation is more properly referred to as a “greater fool theory.” “It is not valuation theory, however.”

In its Update 2004, NADA omitted its reference to “fool”, but referred to the multiple formula as rarely based upon sound economic or valuation theory, and went on to state: “If you are a seller and the rule of thumb produces a high value, then this is not a matter of great concern. Go for it, and maybe someone will be stupid enough to pay you a very high value.”

A dealership’s blue sky is based upon what a buyer thinks it can produce in net profit. If potential buyers think it cannot produce a profit, the store will not sell. If it can produce a profit, then variables such as desirability of location, the balance the brand will bring to other existing franchises owned, whether or not the factory will require facility upgrades, and so on and so forth, determine whether or not a buyer will buy that particular brand, in that particular location, at that particular time.

I have been consulting with dealers for nearly four decades and have participated in over 1,000 automotive transactions ranging from $100,000 to over $100,000,000 and have never seen the price of a dealership sale determined by any multiple of earnings unless and until all of the above factors have been considered and the buyer then decided he, she or it was willing to spend “x” times what the buyer thought the dealership would earn, in order to purchase the business opportunity.

To think otherwise would be to subscribe to the theories that (1) even though you think a dealership could make a million dollars, the store is worth zero blue sky because it made no money last year; and (2) if a store has been making $5 million per year you should pay say 3 times $5 million as blue sky even though you think you will not produce that kind of profit. Both propositions are absurd. If a buyer does not think a dealership is worth blue sky, then what he is really saying is that he sees no business opportunity in the purchase and therefore, in my opinion, he should not buy the store.

Each dealership is unique with respect to its potential, location, balance that its brand brings a dealer group, and condition of facility. The sale is also unique with respect to whether it is a forced liquidation, orderly liquidation, arms length, insider, or a case where an anxious buyer is trying to induce an unwilling seller. There are management factors to consider, length and term of leases, possibilities or non-possibilities of purchasing the facilities and whether or not the factory wants to relocate the store or to open a new store up the street.

In the car business it is impossible to pick a dealership or a franchise out of a hat, multiply its earnings by some mystical number and predict either what the dealership is worth, or what price it would sell for – and it doesn’t matter if you are talking about a Toyota, Honda, Ford, Chevrolet, Chrysler, Dodge, or any other dealership. At any given time one franchise might be considered more or less desirable than another, but they are all valued in the same manner.

Electrify Your Home For Nothing!

Do you realize that you can get rid of part or all of your electricity bill by assembling your own, low-cost permanent magnet generator? There is zero expense to produce electrical current this way, even though the apparatus requires some electricity to keep it spinning up to speed. The apparatus even generates its own power for that. After it is functioning at full speed, it needs no outside electricity at all to keep it spinning perpetually. Actually, these machines are capable of producing around five times the current they consume to keep functioning.

How much do the parts cost to put together a permanent magnet generator? The cost may astound you: Between one hundred and five hundred dollars, depending on the size of the permanent magnetic generator and, even better, the parts are easily obtainable just about anywhere. You can get them at your nearby hardware or home improvement store.

Complete schematics, parts lists and instructions are currently accessible for a very low price, often less than $50. These directions are so trouble-free to work from that just about any person can easily construct a permanent magnet generator without help. After you have built one or two for yourself, it is easy to begin a money-making venture centered on making these generators for the public. If you end up producing more electric power than you can make use of and if you are still connected to city power, you can sell the surplus back to the electric company when your meter operates backwards.

Permanent magnet generators are pollution-free and emit no toxic fumes. They are not noisy and don’t need much room. You might even locate one inside a city apartment to cut your electricity bill to nothing. Some people construct small permanent magnet generators to furnish part of their power needs, thus shrinking their monthly invoice from the electric power company. Others put together bigger permanent magnet generators that can deliver around 7000 watts, enough to electrify a small house. If you require even more electricity, you can easily harness the output of 2 or more machines together to create any quantity of free electrical current.

To give you a concept of what seven thousand watts of current can power, I own a sixteen hundred square foot dwelling in Hawaii that has been completely run on solar power since 1999. It has an array of forty solar panels, each with an output of 75 watts. 40 x 75 watts = 3000 watts. With just three thousand watts (and a battery bank), I can use my computer and refrigerator all day, cook my meals in a microwave oven and use a toaster. At night, I can watch 1 or 2 DVD’s while powering a small TV and a surround sound system. I keep the lights switched off when not needed. All light bulbs are the fluorescent type.

In the summer, when the Hawaiian sun shines brightly from dawn to dusk, I do not even need to consider how much electricity I am utilizing. In the winter, when the days are shorter and when there are more gray days, I have to turn off the main power switch before I go to bed and turn it back on at daybreak. The electrical refrigerator just “coasts” all night and the food is still reasonably cold in the morning. Where I run into run into difficulty is if I have to deal with an all-day overcast for 2 or more consecutive days. Then, I need to use a back-up three thousand-watt gasoline generator to keep the house operating and the solar batteries charged. This happens perhaps three to four times a winter and hardly ever in the summer.

A permanent magnet generator, unlike a solar system or a wind turbine, can operate twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week and it generates the identical amount of power day and night, rain or shine. You can make use of it to run a battery bank, like solar (but around the clock) or you can easily eliminate the costly, high-maintenance batteries and drive your breaker panel directly. I could use a permanent magnet generator to replace my gasoline solar backup generator. I did not know about permanent magnet generators in 1999 when I paid over $30,000 to create my solar electric system. I will soon need to replace the six giant solar batteries which will cost another $14,000.

Similar to an electric motor, a permanent magnet generator contains moving parts, so it does need a certain, small amount of periodic maintenance due to wear and tear. A permanent magnet generator, running constantly should last at least ten years. And, when it finally does wear out, the cost of building (or rebuilding) a replacement is very low, as has already been discussed.

A permanent magnet generator operates on the principle of attracting and repelling magnetic poles. An array of permanent magnets drives a flywheel which, in turn, spins a generator. In short, it uses magnets and magnetic force to produce perpetual electricity. It will continue functioning, even in extreme heat or below-freezing temperatures.

If you are thinking that all of this is too good to be true, just know that hundreds of these permanent magnet generators have already been made, around the world, and most of them are functioning very well. What better proof could you require?

© 2011 Robert M. Gillespie, Jr.

About the Author:

Can You Make Over $100,000 a Year in the Auto Repossession Business?

A common question in the repo industry is, “How much money do repo men make?”

If someone told you that you could make over $100,000 a year in a bad economy without a college degree, you’d think they were crazy.  But some auto repo business owners are not only doing well – they’re making six-figures a year.  When the economy does bad, they do better!

How Much Do Repo Men Make?

If you start your own auto repossession business, you can expect to earn $250 (or more) per repo’ed car.  If you repossess two cars a night, five days a week, that’s $130,000 a year.  It certainly requires hard work and determination, but it’s possible.

Repossession agents make the most money when lenders hire them to track down hard-to-find debtors – which is called “skip-tracing.”  If a debtor voluntarily gives up their car (or if they’re easy to track-down,) an agent may only make $100 for the recovery.

Repo men who work for someone else typically earn 40% of the repo fee – or $70 to $100 per recovered vehicle (on average.)

What Are The Pros and Cons of Owning Your Own Repo Business?

While it’s true repo business owners make the most money, they have to pay for gas and overhead expenses before they get paid.  And, as the motto in the repo industry goes, “no recovery, no pay.” 

Fortunately, you don’t need to invest in expensive equipment to start a repo business.  In fact, you usually don’t need a tow-truck!

That’s because many lenders keep key codes on file for every vehicle they own.  Sometimes they even keep a spare set of keys!  All you have to do is get a key made, find the car and drive it away.

You can invest in a minimal amount of equipment to get started, and reinvest your profits as your business grows.

What Are The Pros and Cons of Becoming a Repo Man for Someone Else?

Although there are advantages to owning your own business, many repo agents find it easier to get started working with an established repossession company.  That’s because in some states, there are many hoops to jump through to become a licensed repossession business, including:

  1. Getting bonded and insured
  2. Competing a required amount of training (not all states require this)
  3. Familiarizing yourself with repossession, investigation and collection laws
  4. Investing in adequate equipment, computers and software for your business

In fact, many repo businesses owners got their start working for someone else!

While the repo business isn’t for everyone, if you have a tough skin, a hard work ethic and an entrepreneurial spirit, it can be lucrative whether you work for someone else or yourself.  The key is getting adequate training before you head out into the field, so you can avoid common (and costly) mistakes!

The Differences Between OE OEM and OES Parts

OE: Original Equipment:  This part is either made by the car manufacture or is made by an automotive part supplier and is branded with the car manufactures logo and/or in the car manufactures box.  

OEM Original Equipment Manufacture

OES Original Equipment Supplier

Car manufacturers do not make all their parts that they put on their vehicles during assembly or repair, they contract out to auto part manufactures to make parts for them. For the most part the car manufacturer makes the body, frame and major engine components the rest they ‘farm out’ to OEM/OES manufacturers. The car manufacturer provides the specifications to the OEM/OES manufactures for the parts they need. The OEM/OES manufactures the part to these specs, adds a logo and ships it to the car manufacture.

Bosch, Bilstien, Boge, Beru, Mann, ATE, to name a few, are all OEM or OES suppliers to the car manufacturers. They make parts from spark plugs to exhaust parts. The difference between OE and OEM/OES is mainly the OEM/OES usually don’t have the car manufactures logo, but they are the same exact part. Sometimes the logo is ground off the part by the OEM/OES company so as not to affect there contract with the car manufacture. Same part coming off the same assembly line as the OE part does.

The OEM/OES parts are less expensive because they do not go through the car manufactures part system. Every time an OE part goes through a depot, warehouse, dealer, there is a little more money added to the cost of the part. This is the major reason that OE parts cost more. OEM/OES do not go through this procedure, our buyers get them directly from the manufactures, keeping the prices down.  

Aftermarket: aftermarket parts are just that, aftermarket. They are not made by the car manufacturers. They can be made by one of the original equipment manufacturer companies or by a completely different manufacturer. The main difference is they are not made completely to the car manufacture specifications. This is not always bad. One example is Bilstien. They are an OEM/OES supplier, but they offer aftermarket parts also. There HD struts/shocks are original equipment, but their Sport struts/shocks and suspension kits are not made to OE specifications, better but not OE, so it’s now an aftermarket part. Another example is the Stewart EMP BMW water pumps. Stewart EMP is NOT an OEM/OES manufacturer but the pump they make is better and stronger than OE. It is an aftermarket part but a better part altogether.  

But still another example of an aftermarket BAD part is a counterfeit part. Counterfeit part manufacturers use backward engineering to get the specifications of the part without paying the car manufacturer. And almost all the time these parts are made with very low quality components. Sometimes these parts are very hard to identify because a lot of emphasis is put on the look and feel of the part and not what it is made from. One way to identify an counterfeit part is its unbelievable low price, the old adage you get what you pay for fits here. The best way to avoid these cheap low quality parts is to purchase your parts from a reliable source, one that offers a warranty and return policy.

Almost all Performance parts are aftermarket parts, again be careful with these parts also. Buy from a reputable supplier or/or manufacturer.  

Mini Oil Change – Changing the Oil in Your Classic Mini Automobile

Changing the oil in your Classic Mini is easy to do, yet you’d be amazed how many people pay garages to do this.

To carry out the oil change yourself you will need the following:

  • A 5 litre container of new oil
  • A new oil filter
  • A large spanner
  • A screwdriver set
  • An oil filter removal tool or large flat-headed screwdriver
  • A funnel
  • A clean rag
  • An oil tray

First, run your Mini engine for five minutes in order to heat up the oil in the engine. Then park the Mini on a level surface and turn off the engine and open up the bonnet.

Using the large spanner, unscrew the sump plug on the side of the sump beneath the car. Make sure you place an oil tray underneath the car to catch the oil.

When the oil is flowing out of the sump, unscrew the oil filler cap on top of the engine to allow the oil to flow faster.

A Mini engine and gearbox will hold over 4 litres of oil. If the container you are using to catch the oil cannot hold this amount, replace the sump plug to stop the flow of oil while you empty the container. I find it useful to keep an old oil container in which to empty the used oil. Use a funnel to prevent spillage.

While the oil is draining out of the engine, remove the front grill using your screwdriver set to gain access to the oil filter.

Eventually the oil will trickle to a few drips a minute. What I like to do next is to pour in some new oil into the top of the engine using a funnel, and let that drain through. It will come out black at first as it collects gunk along the way. When it starts coming out looking like it went in, clean the drain plug of all oil and metal filings with a clean rag. Use the rag to clean the grooves of the sump hole as well so that it is free of metal filings. You can also pour some new oil onto a clean rag and smooth it into the sump hole and over the sump plug.

Next screw the sump plug back in until tight, but don’t go mad and try to over tighten it. It’s tight enough if no oil drips out when you fill it back up.

Mini oil filters can be hard to remove, which is why you can buy oil filter removal tools. Use the oil filter removal tool to remove the old oil filter. With the old Mini oil filter removed, dab some new oil onto a clean rag and clean the oil filter seal on both the engine and the new oil filter.

Screw the new Mini oil filter onto the engine making sure that your hands and the filter casing are not covered in oil, which can cause slippage and prevent a tight seal. Replace the front grill.

With the sump plug back in place and the new oil filter fitted, start pouring new oil into the top of the engine through the filler hole using the funnel, and let it settle. Keep topping up the oil until the dipstick level reads close to max.

Replace the oil filler cap and close the bonnet. Take the car for a short drive around the block and then park it up and allow the engine to cool down.

Once the engine is cold you will find that the oil level has dropped. Remove the filler cap and top up the oil until the oil level reaches max.

You should find that your Classic Mini runs a lot better after an oil change. I could not believe the difference an oil change made to my Mini in both terms of performance and how smooth the engine ran.

It is worth giving your Mini a regular oil change. Check your oil level periodically, and if the oil on your dipstick starts looking a little black, it’s time for another change.

Is There an Afterlife? 9 Astonishing Facts That Prove the Afterlife is Real (No Bull!)

Is there really an afterlife? Does life truly continue after my physical body is no more? And is there any scientific “proof” that we actually CAN (and do) survive our physical demise? In this article we tackle the tough terrain of the afterlife and see what many different sorts of REAL phenomena may have to say about where YOU are going when this life is over… and it’s NOT necessarily what our religious teachers or textbooks tell us!

The Weight of The Evidence is Overwhelming That Life Goes On… and On…

Any individual story, anecdote or experience is really proof of nothing. But the overwhelming evidence for something, EVEN when science turns a blind eye, often is.

What do I mean? Well… when you look at the individual elements of facts that “support” an afterlife, it’s often easy to dismiss and fantasy… or wishful thinking. But when you ADD all of them up, and look at them as a whole, they are amazingly evidential that something truly extraordinary happens at the moment of, (and after) physical death.

Some examples?

  1. Near Death Experiences: (people who have extraordinary experiences while “clinically” dead, often with no vital signs or brain activity for many minutes)
  2. Out of Body Experiences: (people who leave their bodies, and see things happening many miles away that are later validated – often called Astral Projection, which is usually thought of as the INTENTIONAL experience of learning to leave one’s body, rather than it happening spontaneously)
  3. Crisis Apparitions: People who appear to others in “spiritual” form at the moment of death, or severe trauma. Many of these cases have been reported in wars, or when someone is struck with an unexpected trauma like a sudden heart attack or car accident… and “appears” to others many miles away to say goodbye
  4. Death Bed Visions: People who report seeing loved ones at their death beds, often “invisible” to others in the room (although… NOT always..:-) who have come to help them “transition” to the other side
  5. After Death Communications: (or ADC’s) Very simply, these are more commonly thought of as “ghosts” – when someone who is LONG dead appears after their demise to you in physical, or energetic “form” to communicate something. (often is important… and other times can be trivial and re-assuring)
  6. Mystical Experiences: The personal process of having something extraordinary happen that leaves NO doubt in your mind that you are NOT your physical body alone. Very powerful, very personal, and very transformational. (many religious leaders, icons, prophets and other figures throughout human history have based their entire theology on the mystical experience – Moses seeing the “burning bush” in the Old Testament being a textbook example of it’s power to change lives)
  7. Reincarnation & Past Life Research: The compelling cases of people who remember past lives in incredible and fascinating detail, speak foreign languages they’ve never heard, play musical instruments they’ve never seen, and do all sort of other amazing things that science can NOT explain under currently accepted “laws” of how things work
  8. Mediums and Psychics who Talk to the Dead: Yes, many are con’s, charlatans and money making scams… but MANY mediums are genuine, authentic and do AMAZING things that simply cannot be explained by conventional means. They SAY they are talking to the dead… and some of the most amazing cases would suggest that the dead most CERTAINTY are talking back!
  9. ITC and EVP: Basically, electronic voice phenomenon or communication from the other side that’s “captured” using modern equipment like a basic voice recording from the “other side” or more sophisticated stuff like images and even phone calls from beyond. Don’t laugh… they are MANY compelling cases of this sort of thing, and some of the GREATEST scientific minds studied this with vigor, zeal and a FIRM belief that something truly transcendent was happening. (including great scientific luminaries like Tesla, and Thomas Edison, who was working on a device to “talk” to the other side prior to his death)

The bottom line?

In total, the evidence ALL supports that life is a continuous affair… and your soul has a lot more to say after this life is over..:-) Is this GOOD news? I think so! And a good reason to live a life that you can be proud of, and focus on the sort of stuff that’s TRULY forever. (the relationships you forge in this lifetime MAY last a lot longer than you believe..:-)

Teenage Car Insurance – Why it is Important to Buy Teen Auto Insurance

The policies for adding teenage car insurance can put a hole in your wallet. However, it is very important nowadays. It protects your teen and your car, just in case he or she has an accident.

If you are a family person, the safety of your children is always a priority. At least, with teenage car insurance, the cost of paying for an accident after it has happened will not be as costly as having no teen car insurance at all. The secret to it is to get the affordable coverage that you can. You can do this by comparing quotes and getting the deal that best works for you, your budget, and your lifestyle.

We advise you to save money on teenage car insurance. A number of car insurance companies regard drivers who are under the age of 25 as drivers who are more likely to encounter vehicle-related accidents. There is a high percentage of death and accidents involving vehicular situations with teenagers.

This often leads to a higher teenager auto insurance cost. But think of how much you would save. Let’s say your teenager has an accident and you didn’t have teens car insurance. You would have to pay for the hospital fees and the damage fees from your own pocket, without any assistance from the insurance company.

But don’t let this be the reason for you to get those car keys from your teenager. You can actually save money and get the teenage car insurance for him or her. And when you do, you have to remind your teenager the following guidelines.

1. Maintain a clean driving record. He or she should remember that one DWI conviction is enough to increase the insurance. What is normally a couple of hundreds of dollars could amount to thousands of dollars for three years.

2. Insurance companies provide discounts on teenage auto insurance to those who go to school full time and have a 3.0 grade point average. Insurance agents provide discounts to those who are accredited to take driver safety courses and other programs that have been qualified by the state.

3. Be an active member in the community. By joining a particular community or civic organization like Girl Scouts or Eagle Scouts, your teenage can already get discounts. Least risky teens are those who help better the community.

4. Get a safe car. Teenager auto insurance may cost you 50 percent less if your teenager is driving a safer car like a Volvo or a Honda Civic. Newer model cars that come with airbags are also less expensive because there are the safest for any teenager to drive.

Expensive cars, SUVs, high performance cars, and sports cars put teenagers at a greater risk so these are more expensive.

5. Add safety features like automatic seat belts, traction control, side impact air bags and anti-lock brakes in order to reduce the accident rate of your teenager.

What is That Noise? Automotive Sounds and How to Locate Them

Picture yourself riding through the desert and suddenly you hear a noise emanating from your car you never heard before. “What the heck is that noise?” you ask yourself over and over, or “Am I hearing it or imagining it?” Then you grapple with whether or not you should continue on to the nearest service station or stop the car to prevent any further damage. Without the proper knowledge to make this important decision, drivers may find themselves taking on a lot of stress at a very inconvenient time.

One of the things most car owners don’t realize is that cars, like people, can have many types of issues with them. As well, they make many different types of sounds, running well or not so well! The informed car owner can make a better decision on whether to seek the help of an automotive expert with simple diagnostic tests, using simple tools (or even no tools) and a bit of knowledge to assist them with this decision, lending them peace of mind along the way. In this article, I hope to offer you insight to some of this knowledge. After reading, you may find yourself thinking on a more simple level when dealing with your car’s issues.

Cars have the potential to make a wide range of sounds: clicks, ticks, pings, bangs and pops. Some are more serious than others. If that noise is driving you batty and you aren’t near a mechanic, pull the car safely to the side, taking all safety precautions into account. While still in the car and the car running, listen to see if your car is still making the noise. If it is, the sound is most likely related to the engine in some way. If not, then it is more likely the rest of the car. Either way, we have isolated the noise into two areas of importance, moving or not moving.

Let’s assume we can still hear the noise with the car running but motionless. We can further isolate the noise by simply walking around the vehicle once or twice listening for the sound and where you can hear it the loudest or most frequently.

Even though, in most cars, the engine is located in the front of the car, the engine’s exhaust travels the length of the vehicle so anywhere along that system, noises can be created through defect or vibration. The further to the rear you find the noise, the less serious the problem. A general rule of thumb for today’s front-wheel drive vehicles is any noise from the driver’s door to the back of the car (while the car is motionless) would not hinder you from driving to a service station, or home.

The noises you could expect to hear coming from an exhaust that has a hole or crack leaking exhaust somewhere throughout the system would sound both low-pitched and high pitched simultaneously, sounding similar to a snare-drum with a bit of a thump at the same time in a repetitive pulse (due to the opening and closing of the exhaust valves in the engine). If you looked under the car where the leak was emanating from it would be more pronounced. You can drive home, but get it fixed. Leaky exhausts only get worse and can diminish your vehicle’s fuel efficiency and performance, depending on the location of the leak.

If the noise is still in this area but is more of an occasional noise with a pinging, clang, or pop, then it might not be a leak. Clangs and pings are often related to cool or cooling tins that run along the exhaust system and between it and the floor of the car to keep those areas of the car from getting hot. They can ping just from the increase/decrease in temperature but a loose tin will also ping and/or bang. Again, this is not an emergency but not something that should not be left to further deterioration if you can help it. A popping sound coming from your car’s tailpipe is a signal that something isn’t exactly right with the engine. It could mean the car needs a tune-up; a sensor might not be working properly, and so on. Most of this is negligible and you can survive the drive to a service station but again, nothing to ignore. Allowing your engine to burn fuel improperly over a long period can cause damage to your engine’s components which can lead to significant repair expenditures.

So, let’s say that behind the front doors the sound diminishes and it seems most apparent toward the front. You’d move around and try to determine what side of the car as well as whether the noise came from the very front of the car or more toward the windshield. Most front-wheel drive cars have the engine belts and pulleys on the passenger side of the car with the transmission/transaxle on the driver’s side. Knowing this, you should hear more noise on the passenger side even in a new car, but it is a peculiar sound that you seek.

With all that noise coming from such a crowded area, what can you do to pin it down? First, be safe and absolutely certain you don’t have hair, jewelry, or clothing dangling into the engine compartment while it is running, the dangers are real when dealing with the belts and pulleys which usually are not covered very well! Once you have made sure you are clear to peer in, do so listening closely as you move along the engine compartment.

Still having trouble pinning it down? Do you have a newspaper handy, a folder; maybe you have a funnel in your trunk? Maybe you are getting the idea…something you can roll up to make a cone or megaphone shape. This will make a great listening device in a pinch. By pointing the wide opening toward the area of the sound and listening at the small end your ear will lead you into a rough area of the sound. Once you have found it you can flip the megaphone around and trace the entirety of the roughly defined area, with the small opening, to pin-point the offending component or location. This will give you great satisfaction, if nothing else that you have a rough idea what is going on with your car. This would also greatly aid a mechanic in confirming the problem, so you could save yourself a big repair bill and, give you peace of mind.

A variety of sounds can come from under the hood, some of which are listed below. Keep a list with you in your glove box so you can reference them:

-Ticking – Typically, low oil can result in a constant tick, tick, tick in rapid succession – Location: This noise is normally on the top of the engine unless your engine is a V-6 or V8 in which case, on front-wheel drive vehicles, it would be front or back of the engine. Trucks and rear-drive cars with V-type engines would have the noise on the left and right sides. Diagnosis & Prognosis: Check oil level and replace what is lost, if it is low. If it persists, consult your service professional. The actual ticking sound is from a lack of lubricant at the lifter/valve stem, rocker arm, push-rods (if equipped) and camshaft causing a slight delay in the spring return or the actual pushing movement resulting in a slight gap in the contact of a few of these components causing them to tap (or tick) against each other. Other sources of “tick”: Normal operation of A/C compressor (occasional tick or clack); Debris in electric fan, clear debris with engine and fan off (allow to cool prior to cleaning); Exhaust leak at engine, seek professional help but you are OK to drive.

-Squealing – Engine belts are considered a wear item. This is because they are attached to moving components (pulleys) and suffer a fair amount of friction over time. They also dry out and crack under heavy use or being left to the elements, particularly in dry states like Arizona. Location: Passenger side of engine compartment on FWD cars and Front of engine compartment on RWD cars and trucks. Diagnosis & Prognosis: Harder to pin-point to a small point with a makeshift megaphone. Shut off car and look to see if there are indeed cracks on the belt(s)…you can check by depressing the belt and looking for cracks as it flexes. If you can see cracks with or without this action then you should plan for a replacement immediately. Once confirmed, make an appointment with your service professional. An unusually dry belt can squeal for no other reason, for this you can buy a spray can of Belt Dressing to mitigate the noise. It helps to condition the belt for better grip. Other sources of a squeal: Or squelching would be low power steering pump fluid level, check and fill as needed, PS pumps can fail and cause a great deal of squelching. Seek a professional if you believe this is the cause; Water pumps have a bearing that can get worn and squeal, seek a professional; Idler pulley or wheel bearing, seek professional.

-Pinging and knocking – This can have a few sources but usually have to do with your ignition and fuel system. It could be as simple as the quality of fuel you pumped in the tank or an engine in need of a tune-up which is sometimes referred to as pre-ignition. This can happen from poor maintenance schedules or filling up at the wrong fuel station. Diagnosis & Prognosis: Start by fueling at another location. If the problem persists make an appointment for a tune-up (new spark plugs, air filters, etc.) and run a fuel injection cleaner fuel additive through your engine. In most cases, this will clear it up. Other sources of pinging and/or knocking: Poorly functioning EGR or computer sensors, seek a professional. Sometimes a clanging sound in the engine cannot be pin-pointed and this could be connecting rod bearings. This is significant and should be seen by a professional before serious damage to your engine occurs.

-Gurgling – 99 times out of 100 this is due to the cooling system not doing its job. Boiling coolant could be heard from the coolant reservoir and even through the hoses. Diagnosis & Prognosis: Be safe; NEVER remove the radiator cap or reservoir cap when the engine is hot. Allow engine to cool and check the reservoir’s level indicator to give you an idea if you need coolant. Add as needed. If there appears to be plenty, then there is a high likelihood that your thermostat is not operating as it should. One obvious indication of this is that your heater may not heat like it used to or maybe not at all. An inoperable electric fan while in heavy traffic can also cause the temperature to soar. Seek a professional for any of these repairs as needed.

Are there other areas of odd noises? Absolutely, maybe you hear noises when you turn on your heater fan. A mouse could have stashed some debris in your auto’s vent ducts. You may hear a squelch which may be the blower belt slipping due possibly to a bad bearing attached to the blower/electric motor. And while we are in the car, maybe you hear a noise as you drive, it could be something as simple as a door slightly ajar or a window open just a touch.

If the noises are heard only while the car or truck is in motion then you could be dealing with suspension or steering abnormalities (clunks, banks and pops) or possibly drive train issues such as bearings (grinding and vibration). Brakes will also make plenty of noise when they are going bad (screeching = built-in pad wear indicator), already bad (grinding when brakes applied = pad level significant with metal to metal contact) but also if brand new (slight squeak or squeal when vehicle is in motion = metallic/semi-metallic brake pads are guilty of this and is a result of a small burr or fragment hanging away from pads rubbing on the brake rotor. This is a defect of the design, not of the pads and is normal and not considered alarming. However, as with any noise you have any doubt about, check with a professional for advice, especially when it comes to brakes, steering and suspension.

Although there are many noises a car can make over its lifetime, hopefully this will give you an idea of some of them, and help you decide whether you should continue your journey of a trip to the store or a day away business commute.

Automobile Business Plan – Four Steps to Success

Like other business plans, the contents of an automobile dealership business plan cover four primary steps towards success. These steps are “opportunity”, “capacity”, “activities”, and “results”.

Opportunity

The industry, customer, and competitive analysis in your business plan proves the opportunity. This should identify that customers in your local market are in need of a dealer of the type you’ve chosen to be because competitors are not fully serving their needs, or because their demographics are changing (more population, richer, poorer, more families, etc.) The opportunity could also be that a certain combination of services by your dealership could improve on what competitors are currently doing. The overall industry situation should look ahead to how the car sales market will be doing six months, one year, or more in the future, when the dealership will actually be open.

Capacity

The experience of the management team, your license as a car dealer, and the financial resources the partners can bring to the table cover the capacity of the entrepreneur to jump on this opportunity. Funders reading the business plan expect that there will also be an element of cash missing from the entrepreneur’s capacity at the moment. Otherwise, they would not be reading the plan in the first place.

Activities

Marketing and operations plans cover the activities the company will engage in to bring in car buyers (and car sellers if you are a used car dealer as well), and run the business as efficiently as possible. As a small car dealer, consider how you can make up for this lack of scale, and the cost savings that come with it for dealer chains, through creativity and hard work.

Results

Finally, the projections of business success and financial section of the plan show the results that you and investors should expect. If results take into account the full costs of the methods you’ve described, and include adequate compensation for staff and key team players, readers will be less likely to question elements on the cost side. If your revenue projections are based on reasonable, researched assumptions about the car buying behavior of your local market, then readers will be more likely to accept this side of the projections as well.

Importance of AutoCAD – Why It Will Never Lose It’s Importance?

CAD Drafting is a drafting solution which is not only used in Architecture, but in Mechanical services as well. Normally CAD Drafting is associated with Architectural 2D or 3D only. However, this term is extensively used in other domains like MEP, Structural and Mechanical Domain too. Today we will talk more about how Auto CAD and CAD Services can be used in different domains. Previously only Auto CAD drawings services were used in Mechanical domain. But today apart from 2D Drafting, 3D modeling of products, machine parts, automotive parts etc. are also designed and created.

Apart from Designing and Drafting Services a lot of other services can be provided under the branch of Computer Aided Design Services. You can execute several projects with help of drafting software. They can be 2D, 3D and even simulations. As software it is extremely user friendly and helps in executing various projects. We can draft a drawing, create sections and elevation, convert it into 3D and then rotate it to view all sides and obtain views. This helps us view the model from all angles.

It helps CAD Drafting services in digitizing the drawings. These drawings can be used as a base to create 3D models or renders. They can be used for Building Information Modeling. These Drawings can be for residential buildings, commercial offices, Hospital or Health care. We can create floor plans, exterior or interior drawings too.

Lot of software available in market are meant to assist an Engineer or Drafter in digitizing drawings. However no software has been able to gain prominence in the Engineering Industry as much as AutoCAD. Engineering Services are known as Computer Aided Design Services owing to the popularity of Auto CAD only.

Apart from only 2D Drafting, exporting Computer Aided Design Drawings to software is easier. Auto CAD is compatible with all software across various domains. You can export Mechanical drawings to Solid works or Inventor; Electrical Drawings can be exported to electoral and Architectural drawings to 3D Studio Max, Revit etc.

Computer Aided Design drafting Professionals can execute projects using software like ANSI, Micro station, Pro-E, Inventor etc. We can convert drawings created in CAD software into different formats. Drafters can create detailed drawings which can be used for construction purposes across all domains. Drawings containing all details which are extremely critical during construction of any projects are also called construction drawings or shop drawings.