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Nikola Tesla – The Mad Scientist of the 19th Century

If you were to mention the name Nikola Tesla, the picture of a mad scientist will pop into my mind. Tesla is a real genius of the early 19th century but not a lot of people know about him.

Nikola Tesla was born on 10th July 1956 and died at the ripe old age of 87 years old. Back in his younger days, Tesla was trained as an electrical and mechanical engineering. His largest invention contributed to the advancement of commercial electricity. Many of his ideas were revolutionary and some said the people back in the early 1900 were not ready for his way of thinking.

His research paved the way for alternative current power system, polyphase electric distribution, alternating current (AC) motor and many more. With his invention, Tesla helped to kick start the Second Industrial Revolution.

When Tesla was a child, he was a subject of the Austrian Empire. When he was older, he became an American citizen and worked for Thomas Edison. Tesla pioneered many groundbreakingventions particularly in the field of wireless energy transfer. Because of his contradictory thinking, he was later involved in the "War of Currents" against his employer, Thomas Edison. Tesla extremely came out victorious and was considered one of the greatest electrical engineers of his time.

In the year 1893, Nikola Tesla through his experiment showed how energy could be transferred wirelessly to power electronic devices. His work lead to the construction of the Wardenclyffe Tower project which was funded by JP Morgan.

The Wardenclyffe Tower incidentally was also known as the Tesla Tower. It was commissioned in 1901 but was never finished. The tower was intended to transmit wireless signal across the Atlantic. Tesla also wanted to show the world how power could be transmitted without the need of cables. Alas, when JP Morgan discovers that there was no way the power transmitted could me metered for financial gain, he dropped his funding and the construction of the Wardenclyffe Tower came to a standstill.

Many of Nikola Tesla initial design plans were never found. Some people believe there was a conspiracy to hide his invention from the public. Tesla's invention could potentially end the world dependence on power companies.

Car Insurance Policy Exclusion Clauses – Loss Of Use

Let's now consider the "loss of use" exclusion clause in your car insurance document.It describes what alternative transport your insurer will offer to you if your own vehicle is inoperative because of accident or theft. In the majority of cases the answer is in the negative!

Some insurance companies have a team of retained repairers who will give you a courtesy car if one should be available. A few insurance companies have a car hire scheme added to their policy while they will arrange a car for you from their chosen car hire partner. However, most insurers do not have either of these options.

Most insurance companies offer a hire car option to their comprehensive policies. The option is expensive and the cover offered is rather limited. You should decide if you find it essential that you require it. It is not an essential 'add on' for everyone. Answer these questions:

If my car was off the road it would be possible for me to:

– get to work (by cycle, walk, bus, train)?

– get the children / grandchildren to school?

– go shopping

– go on holiday?

– follow my sports, social interests, hobbies etc?

If you could manage without a car for a while, you do not really need to buy this extra cover. If you can not then you should check that you have this cover.

Bear in mind, if your car is stolen or an accident is your fault, you will not be able to claim any car hire costs from another person. You can not use a 'credit hire' firm. You can not rely upon the loan of a replacement car from the garage. So this extra cover becomes valuable to you.

Similarly, if you do not wish to use your insurance company's recommended repairer, or your car has been written off, your car hire extra cover should save the day. Let us look at what you should hope to see in an average policy.

You may only hire a car if yours is off the road for at least two days, but the maximum period of hire is fourteen days. If you need it for more than this you will have to pay the additional cost to the car hire firm. There's been many an argument between vehicle owner, insurer and repairer when repairs have overrun often down to non-availability of parts and no party wants to pay the extra car rental costs.

You can not have a hire car for a windscreen or glass only claim.

There is usually a maximum distance that the hire company will deliver a rental car so if you live away from the major cities and the hire firm is a fair few miles away from you, be prepared for an extra charge if you require them to deliver it to you. Can you get to the local depot yourself?

Your own car insurance policy will cover the hire car for comprehensive benefits. That helps your insurer to keep down the price of the hire car cover but if you are involved in an accident while using the rental car, the insurance claim will be on your policy.

The car can only be hired from the date your car goes in for repair if it is still legal and safe to drive your vehicle. If your vehicle is not safe to be driven you can have the car from the date of the accident.

Policies could well pose a maximum hire period, such as fourteen days. If your car is restored prior to this date, you have to return the hire car as soon as you have your car back.

The rental car supplied will almost certainly be a small, manual gearbox model no more than a couple of years old. If you need something a bit bigger you might have to pay extra. If you require an automatic they will try to locate one for you within the vehicle groups specified in the cover. The hire car will normally come supplied with a full tank of fuel. You must return it with a full tank. If you do not you will be billed by the hire firm for a fill up. And they charge a very high price per liter!

Some hire firms will want to collect your credit card number, if you have one, insuring against the possibility of needing to fill up your car or having to repair any bumps or scratches that happen while you are using it.

Nikola Tesla Generator – Truth Or Fiction?

If there is one thing that the Internet has promoted, it is the large amount of scams out there; one of the oldest is the Tesla generator scam. The idea is that Tesla invented a way to collect free energy and the electric companies have been keeping this power producing device a secret in order to keep making money.

Tesla was an inventor and electrical engineer in the late 1800s and early 1900s. As an inventor he helped to develop most of what became modern electrical systems. If it was not for Tesla the modern electric grid used by most of us would not have been invented. The problem with Tesla was that he was also just a bit on the outside of the belief systems of most scientists of the times. This is why he is associated with things like the Tesla generator scam, and other hoaxes that float around the internet.

There has been a belief for a long time that it is possible to collect the free energy that flows around the universe.

Being able to generate our own energy would put the electric companies out of business, and whenever there are large money-making entities like the electric companies of the world, there will be people who want to believe hoaxes like the Tesla generator scam. While the truth is that there is free energy from the universe flowing around us all every day, there is not enough to actually power anything that requires electricity. On their best day the numerous free energy generators out there actually lose energy faster than they create it. The first sign that the Tesla generator scam is just that a scam is that if someone really had these plans, they would either donate them to mankind as a way to better the planet, or the more likely scenario, sell them to the highest bidder and retire.

Does it really make sense that all you have to do is buy plans off a web site and never need electricity again. OK, so that is why there has to be a conspiracy, otherwise all the billionaires that earn their money from the buying and selling of energy would be out of business. The problem with the Tesla generator scam is that the only people making any money are the ones that are willing to prey on those that are extremely gullible or the extremely paranoid of every conspiracy theory that comes along.

While most of the people who would fall for the Tesla generator scam, will tell you tall tales about secret societies that actually run the world and the fact that we are all just not aware of what is really happening, the truth is that there is nothing that has been hidden from anyone.

The real victims of things like the Tesla generator scam are the people who fork over hard-earned cash for a piece of paper with plans for something scientific looking. The maker of this and all scams spend about three cents to print things they sell for twenty bucks. Now there is a conspiracy, this group of unscrupulous people stealing money from the hopeful.

Why Car Insurance For Exotic Cars is Costly?

You need insurance for your car to provide coverage against accidents, thefts, fire and other problems similar to these. But when you talk about the insurance of your exotic car you have to choose the right insurance plan since you have paid hefty money for you car and may have to spend more on repair costs in the future. You must remember that your insurance would cost you more than the cost of regular car. So, you need to consider some options at the time you buy this car. You will be able to save money on insurance. Actually your car model affects your insurance, for instance, the sports cars have the highest insurance rate because those are enjoyed at high speed so have high probability to meet with an accident. The safety feature of those are ignored as the emphasis is on the style and design of the car.

The cars with enhanced safety features have low insurance rates, so your exotic car will cost you more at the time of its insurance. Remember that such cars have more opportunities of theft than a regular car as not only they are expensive but also their bright colors attract everyone. Repair and maintenance of exotic cars is another factor that shares to the higher insurance rates of these cars. For example, you will have to spend more money on the broken head light than that of a regular car. So it is recommended that you should keep these factors under consideration at the time you get your car insured. You can reduce the insurance cost through online insurance facilities and discounts.

An important point to keep in mind is that, women owner of these cars may have low insurance rate. Statistics have shown that women drive carefully then men so their insurance cost is low. Several companies are considering this fact and providing contract specifically for the women.

Sports cars are considered exotic cars as well. The insurance cost for such vehicles is higher as they have higher replacement or repair cost and are of higher value. This factor brings the premium up. Another factor that contributes to the higher insurance cost is the perception that the owner drives this car more for pleasure than for utility, so he drives it faster and exposes it to more possibilities of accidents. These are the basic risks that make these sports cars insurance premium higher than other regular cars. You can avoid, somewhat, this high insurance cost. Do not rush for the first deal at once. There are a lot of other insurers that provide exotic cars insurance cheaper price. They can help you to save your money.

Pulsed ElectroMagnetic Field Discovery – Nikola Tesla

"PEMF is a benefit for Mankind from infant to the geriatric." PEMF will lead to a change in the paradigm of medicine. " Dr. Linus Pauling – Double Nobel Prize Winner

In the past, people have dreamed of what the future might look like. Imagine how people might live in a time when advanced technology provides the solution for today's health problems. Can you imagine chronic pain due to illness, injury, surgery, old age and the trauma of incurable health problems in the US and indeed the world in 2014 being cured? I would have to say that it was the most horrible untreatable health problems that create a gloomy life for those with health problems.

The key to healing the body and creating wellness is the PEMF advanced secret miracle technology that is revolutionizing the way doctors treat pain. However there are many dissimilar devices available, there is very little information explaining what makes one PEMF device better than any other. We have found numerous confusing numbers and perplexing scientific terms when we endeavored to unearth the real difference among all PEMF machines. You know, the kind of information you find in a sales pitches! That's why; we are cultivating and researching the PEMF devices, to clear the fog surrounding PEMF devices in the market today!

PEMF is a device which runs on the principle of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy.

Let's start here:

Nikola Tesla was the first modern individual to be recognized for manipulating electromagnetic fields for health purposes. His methods and patents in the early 1900s for the Tesla coil were also used for electromagnetic medical devices. The devices back then were extremely large round solenoid coils of wire that would surround the patient while they would stand or lie on a bed. They were energized directly from the 50 or 60 Hz sine wave electrical system. And truth is told the patient would actually experience an immediate relief in pain. Tesla's methods for electro-therapy were originally carried out by electricians who wanted to commercialize electricity although electro-therapeutic devices typically fell out of favor with doctors when educators in western medical schools chose to only educate medical students in the use of pharmaceuticals and surgery (a result of the infamous Flexner Report 1910).

Additionally a concerted effort by the pharmaceutical industry to discredited electromagnetic therapy caused it to be branded as "quackery" and electrical medical devices were only to be considered for diagnostic purposes such as X-ray. Tesla's advances were quickly forgotten. The same could be said of the work of Georges Lakhovsky and his multi-wave oscillator (MWO). By the 1920s, Lakhovsky had clinics all over Europe, delivering his electromagnetic therapy oscillatory, or "vibration" therapy. Lakhovsky's method was so successful he was approached by several hospitals in New York hoping to test his apparatus experimentally. Remarkable results were obtained from a seven-week clinical trial performed at a major New York City hospital and that of a prominent Brooklyn urologist in the summer of 1941. What seemed like a promising development in the use of the MWO in America quickly fashed after Lakhovsky unexpectedly died in New York in 1942 (age 73). A car stuck and killed him in a most mysterious manner. His equipment was removed from the hospital and patients were told that the therapy was no longer available. This murder we believe to be Maurice Fishbein (the AMA) and Big Pharmaceutical is in my opinion the reason for this awful act.

You see the pharmaceutical companies and doctors figured out that they could make a lot of money "treating" people, not making them well, and then getting someone else to pay for it. They continue to ruthlessly discredit valuable therapies that threaten profits. Although in the countries not under the sway of Big Pharmaceutical companies, like the former Soviet Union, electromagnetic therapy did not die out, but was further developed and is still widely deployed through hospitals. Their scientists learned that when magnetic fields are pulsed, the result was significantly enhanced. It covered the innate vibration of a wider range of cells and tissues, Lakhovsky would probably have said.

We're going to go over the basics so you have a clear understanding of what is really going on during your PEMF treatment. After you know, you may find it's easier to get a sense of which kind of PEMF device will work best for you. We'll keep this short, sweet and simple so remember to take mental notes because they'll help you when we start comparing the different machines.

The first PEMF device was called a 'lightning' machine for a reason! PEMF works because it charges up your cells with electricity. Problems that the PEMF treats such as chronic pain can only happen in areas of low voltage in the body. That is, places where the cells are low on energy for any number of reasons injuries, fatigue, and illness. A PEMF machine sends extra electrical charge to those low energy areas using magnetic fields to carry it into the body. Basically, the device send a 'package' of energy into the low energy areas – think of the magnetic field as the envelope and the electricity as the message! And when the cells receive that electricity they immediately use it to heal the body – and relief can happen very quickly (within seconds to minutes) depending on the device. PEMF repairs every disease known to man!

Today the PEMF industry field has many dedicated clients that are Doctors, Chiropractors, Physical Therapy, Hospitals, Clinics, and Pain Centers and also include many Alternative Medicine consumers as well.

• Relief of Chronic Pain
• Muscle Relaxation
• Improved Cellular Energy
• Repair of Soft Tissue
• Anti-Oxidant Stimulation
• Brain Function
• Affects Stress
• Reduction in Hormones
• Changes Scars
• Modification Learning
• Changes Bone Healing
• Enhanced Oxygenation
• Inflation Reduction
• Sleep Improvement
• Enhanced Healing Process

Why Tesla’s New Semi-Truck Pricing Is A Game Changer

Tesla just unveiled the pricing for its semi-truck and once again, it’s beating all expectations!

Initially, when this model was first announced, people were making disparate guesses as to pricing in relation to battery size. Some assumed that if the vehicle comes with a thousand kilowatt hour battery with a 500-mile range, the price tag would most likely fall within the $200,000 t0 $250,000 range.

Tesla Semi-Truck Priced Competitively

They’ve finally released the actual costs and frankly these numbers are mind-blowing. The starting price is at $150,000 for the 300-mile range model, $180,000 for the 500-mile range model, and $200,000 for the fully loaded Founders Series model, which should also be at the 500-mile range.

To put this in perspective, the entry-level price for a diesel-powered semi-truck is approximately one hundred thousand dollars. If you prefer something that’s more reliable or that has more features, you’ll have to look at the $110,000 to $120,000 range.

Interestingly enough, when you consider the difference between the two models (300-mile range and 500-mile range models), what were actually seeing is a bargain-priced upgrade.

Viewed from this angle, the announced pricing even becomes more cost-effective and attractive. We’re talking about an upgrade cost of only $15,000 for every additional 100-mile range (about 200-kilowatt more battery muscle)!

Of course, these calculations could be way off, these are based on initial numbers and observations and there will be corollary costs involved with every purchase. But, if the math proves right, this is indeed a game-changer!

The Elon Musk Factor

Of late, Tesla seems to be making inroads and getting a lot of mileage over the competition. They already have the clear technology edge, thanks to a forward-thinking decision to go big on R&D.

And, they have Elon Musk.

“Let’s face it, people purchase a Tesla EV because it’s a great car with a wonderful tech, they invest in Tesla because they believe in Elon Musk,” observed TColey 100, a keen observer in the EV space. “Elon Musk is Tesla’s most valuable asset and that is what the competition has to contend with.”

When it comes to Tesla, online discussions would often – naturally so – gravitate around the areas where the company excels in. EV technology, batteries, and their massive super charging network, those topics are par for the course.

But, if there’s one differentiator who’s making things happen for Tesla that could only be Elon Musk. Comparisons have been made and tons of pages have been written about the man. The closest tech visionary that comes to mind is, of course, Steve Jobs.

They’re both dream chasers who caused massive disruptions in their respective industries searching for breakthroughs. They do what they do best because they see that it can be done. It’s unfortunate that Jobs died early. The way things are shaping up, Musk is poised to achieve far greater things before he’s done.

This piece is not intended to glorify Tesla or Musk. Far from that, the company has its own set of shortcomings to deal with but its leadership and direction remain sound. Let’s give credit where credit is due.

Why Edison Achieved More for Mankind Than Tesla

In 2007, the company I work for was the first company to propose 48 V-DC as the voltage of choice in a local DC-System, when we introduced LED lighting that was DC ready. Schneider of France and General Electric (GE) were following suit in 2013 and 2014.

DC will be the on-site electricity distribution of choice. More and more technology driven companies are recognizing this and as a result there is now agreement that 48 V-DC is the voltage of choice, for now, for local battery systems and DC distribution.

However, this is still based on lead acid technology being cheapest in increments of 12 Volt and the low voltage directive. With LiFePO battery systems having 3 Volt per cell and no cost penalty for odd voltages the real local system voltages may move from 48 Volt (24 cell lead acid based) to 66 Volt systems (22 cell LiFePO based) and power DC equipment will have to tolerate 40 to 75 V-DC input voltages.

More and more devices in the home and the place of work are native DC devices that will benefit from direct DC feeds. Such devices include most of the modern life essentials for home and office like solid state LED lighting, solid state refrigeration, heating and air-conditioning, computers, phones and networking, access control, entertainment systems, water treatment and pumps. Even heavier production machinery can be converted to DC devices at a reasonable cost.

A DC infrastructure with a Battery Storage system lends itself to direct feed from an alternative energy source such as solar or wind. Generating and using the energy yourself has a significant impact on the effectiveness of alternatively generated energy. For example when generating feeding the grid and taking power back from the grid has a minimum loss of the complete process of 30%.

Losses in alternating current (AC) systems (other than heating) are typically between 15 to 30%, this is typical for a Laptop or PC power supply, a Microwave Oven power supply or an LED Lighting power supply. If those devices can be equipped with a DC to DC power supply with efficiencies ranging from 90 to 95% additional savings will be achieved.

The effect of NOT feeding the grid and using DC to DC power supplies is that that close to all of the locally generated energy can be used instead of throwing half of it away in a system that uses the grid instead of battery storage.

Multiple factors of recent technology advances make DC more viable now than in the past:

  • When Edison was making batteries up until a few years ago the technology was not very durable and represented the highest cost in a local DC system. Batteries lost their capacity quickly, were heavy and difficult to maintain, lasting around 1 to 3 years depending on the depth of the cycles. There are now new battery technologies commercially available at reasonable prices promoting a 10 year lifetime and 85% of their original capacity at the end of life with daily cycles.
  • Solar Panel prices are at a historical low.
  • Semiconductor Power Device Technology has become so good that system losses for charging or discharging batteries are in the 1% to 2% range for systems above 5 kW load.
  • Most devices are internally DC devices.
  • Lighting will move completely to LED which is a DC driven semiconductor technology.

In 2007 I have been accurately predicting that LED technology will replace any and all lighting and it is now clear that it will.

DC Systems will be introducing the home and office space in the future because they are the most efficient way to use local alternately generated energy the most efficient way and by doing so provide a robust disaster and backup strategy.

Another advantage of DC systems using the grid as a backup is that they can significantly reduce the demand on the grid. For companies that pay for the demand as well as for the energy used, this may also result in a significant reduction of their energy bill.

How Does a Tesla Coil Work

One time when I was a young boy I saw a documentary on TV, that happened to show a large tesla coil in operation at some college, from that moment on the Tesla Coil bug had bitten me. I knew someday I would have to own one of these wonderful devices. The loud noise, the powerful arcs of flowing electric was absolutely amazing. Now that I am getting older, I am the proud owner of three tesla coils, a wimhurst machine, van de graff generator, odin coil, and other high voltage devices.

Before I start telling you how a tesla coil works, I should take a little time to tell you about it's inventor, Nikola Tesla. Nikola Tesla was born on July 10, 1856, was an inventor, a mechanical and an electrical engineer. Born in Smiljan, Croatian Krajina, Austrian Empire, he was an ethnic Serb subject of the Austrian Empire and later became an American citizen. Tesla invented numerous things and had acquired around 300 patents worldwide for his ideas. Some of Tesla's patents include such amazing devices as the AC motor, bifilar coil, various devices that use rotating magnetic fields, AC polyphase power distribution system, wireless communication devices, radio frequency oscillators, voltage magnification by standing waves, robotics, logic gates for secure radio frequency communications, devices for x-rays, apparatus for ozone generation, devices for ionized gases, devices for high field emissions, devices for charged particle beams, means for increasing the intensity of electrical oscillations, voltage multiplication circuitry, devices for high voltage discharges , devices for lightning protection, the bladeless turbine, and many more.

If you do some searching on the internet or other sources for tesla coils, most places try to explain these devices in terms that only a physics expert can understand. I have broken down the tesla coil into it's 6 main parts or components, with easy to understand terminology on the operation. The 6 main components are the transformer, capacitor, spark gap, primary coil, secondary coil and discharge sphere.

The TRANSFORMER takes 110 volt wall socket current or current from another source, and steps it up to several thousand volts (depending on the transformer). CAPACITOR – Acts like a battery, and takes the stepped-up voltage and stores it until it's fully charged. Once fully charged, the SPARK-GAP fires, releasing all of the capacitors stored energy in a sngle strong burst or pulse. From the SPARK-GAP, the current flows to the large PRIMARY COIL. The PRIMARY COIL, is usually made from thick copper wire or even pipe, consisting of 5-25 turns or coils. This large copper coil produces a strong magntic field as the current flows through it, the current is then picked up by the SECONDARY COIL. The SECONDARY COIL, acts like another transformer, and consist of numerous turns or coils of smaller gauge copper wire. Here the current continues building by the effects of the magnetic field on the copper, until it reaches massive voltage levels. This current moves up into the DISCHARGE SPHERE. The DISCHARGE SPHERE also acts like a simple capacitor (storage battery), before discharging the current as sparks and corona.

There is a website that describes the tesla coil and numerous other high voltage devices in detail, this website is called: How a Tesla Coil Works and it may be found at this url: http://www.rb59.com/tesla-coil /tesla-coil.html

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Forgotten Genius – Nikola Tesla

With all due respect for Thomas A. Edison, Nikola Tesla was an equal, if not greater, American inventor. Edison is highly lauded. Tesla is almost forgotten.

Broadly speaking, Edison could be described as an innovator. He improved on existing technology. He did not invent the incandescent light bulb, for example.

That was patented and demonstrated publicly by Joseph Swam of Britain in 1878 – a year before Edison. Later, Swam and Edison formed a brief partnership and Edison bought him out.

Tesla, a native of Serbia, also began as an innovator. He wanted to be an electrical engineer. At that time, "direct current" electricity was produced by chemical batteries charged by a steam-driven generator.

Direct current is affected by resistance in the wire conducting it. Within a mile or so, electricity is used up in the form of heat. At the University of Prague, Tesla was challenged to solve the distribution problem.

Tesla had a phenomenal memory. He memorized the complete works of Goethe and Voltaire. While strolling in a park, reciting poetry about the sun, Tesla suddenly perceived the direct-current solution.

An electric current that alternated from negative to positive could have been sent in separate wires. At the receiving end, the two currents would be "induced" to flow to separate magnets – one stationary, the other rotating like the sun.

Tesla patented his idea. "Alternating current" and "induction motors" is the principal system we use today for our homes and factories.

Upon graduation in 1882, Tesla worked for the Continental Edison Company in Paris. He came to the United States a year later to work directly with Edison. Upon arrival he had four cents in his pocket and a sheaf of his poems.

Edison held several patents on direct current improvements, which he led to General Electric. His installation of a complete direct- current lighting systems at lower New York City was widely hailed.

Inevitably the two men quarreled over the merits of their two systems. Tesla quit, opened his own laboratory and became a naturalized citizen in 1891. He sold his alternating current patents to George Westinghouse. A battle of titans ensued.

Edison tried to convince the public that the low-voltage Edison-General Electric system could be handled with complete safety, while the Tesla-Westinghouse high-voltage system was dangerous.

Someone in the Edison camp toured state fairs mildly shocking stray cats and dogs with direct current – then killing them with alternating current. The pitch was that the Tesla / Westinghouse high-voltage alternating current was fatal if touched accidentally.

First Human Electrocution

During this public relations war, the state of New York bungled several gruesome hangings. Condemned prisoners sometimes were slowly strangled or decapitated.

A Dr. Brown, dentist and spokesman for the Medico-Legal Society of New York, searched for a "more humane and scientific way" of applying capital punishment.

He convinced state authorities that alternate-current electricity was the quickest and surest.

The warden of the Albany Penitentiary asked Westinghouse to install an AC generator with which to execute an ax murder named William Kemmler.

Both Westinghouse and Tesla were strenuously opposed to capital punishment and refused.

Through subterfuge, someone – Historian Theo Benson says it was Edison – obtained a Tesla generator for the world's first human execution by electricity.

The voltage was too low. Kemmler was literally cooked after repeated jolts of current. The disgusted Westinghouse later said, "They've done better with an ax."

For years thereafter, people killed accidentally by electrical mishaps were said to have been "Westinghoused."

Tesla System Wins

Westinghouse and Tesla forged ahead of General Electric and Edison by winning a contract to illuminate the 1893 Chicago Exposition with 200,000 light bulbs. It was a sensation.

Three years later they installed the first hydroelectric alternating – current system at Niagara Falls for the city of Buffalo. Edison and General Electric thereafter manufactured light bulbs and other appliances compatible with alternating current.

With royalties pouring in, Tesla could concentrate on the nature of electricity and its potential.

His approach of exploring the nature of energy was science – as opposed to inventing things for specific purposes. During the next few years, he filed 830 patents.

Tesla's watershed invention was a particular coil of wire that ushered in hundreds of uses we take for granted today. They were however, too futuristic for the time.

He achieved illumination with "filamentless" bulbs filled with various gases. Today we recognize these as fluorescent lights and neon advertising letters.

He experimented with "shadowgraphs" of human bones through clothing years before Roentgen published his work.

His "Tesla coil" created high-voltage "energy waves" by which he designed radio signals to "telautomaton" model ships. They maneuvered in response to levers on a control box.

Tesla said he could replace the lever box with a telephone to transmit voices, music – and, absolutely, images. No commercial backer was interested because there were no instruments to receive ethereal waves.

This was two years before Marconi succeeded in broadcasting a single telegraph click. After a legal suit, Tesla's primacy was upheld.

The Navy was mildly interested in a tiny submarine without a crew that could be controlled by Tesla's waves. However, the admirals did not foresee the smart bombs and torpedoes of today.

The 'high-power oscillator' – that Tesla invented to control ships at sea – is the power supply for our television cathode-ray picture tube.
Man-made Lightning

The US War Department in 1893 asked Tesla to expand his wireless communications systems. The request came at an awkward time. Tesla's patents expired. His New York laboratory and papers had burned.

The manager of the Colorado Springs municipal lighting system offered Tesla free electricity for his project. He moved to Colorado Springs and built an experimental radio station 10 miles out of town.

He determined that the Earth is a huge magnet with energy flowing between positive and negative poles. Also, he computed the frequency necessary to project an electrical spurt completely through the planet and recapture the spurt when it bounced back.

It was his intent – by a huge Tesla coil – to add additional spurts to successful bounces. When a massive voltage had been built up, he would release it from a tall antenna to zoom around the world.

When all was ready, Tesla, wearing shoes with two-inch-thick rubber soles for insulation, thread the switch for one second "to see what it would do." The plateau was carpeted momentarily with blue St Elmo Fire – but no explosion.

Tesla thread the switch again and stepped outside to measure the expected lighting bolt. Amidst deafening thunder, a bolt leaped from the antenna and lengthened as earth charges accumulated.

Folks in town were alarmed. Sparks crackled from fire hydrants. People in leather shoes, or barefoot, skipped from heat.

At 130 feet, the bolt collapsed. All was silent.

Tesla ran to the phone and called the Colorado Springs municipal electric plant. "You have ruined my experiment?"

"To Hell with you," was the reply. "You have burned out our generators." They sent him a bill for damages and electricity. .

Neverheless, Tesla had learned a great deal about earth resonance and aerial propagation of radio waves. He became obsessed with the possibility of capturing earth energy and broadcasting it free to the whole world.
Search For Free Energy

Tesla returned to New York City to build a radio transmitter capable of reaching Europe. He obtained backing from JP Morgan, a prominent financier of promoting projects.

A huge Tesla coil and 85-foot broadcasting tower was built at Wardenclyffe on Long Island. It soon became apparent to Morgan that Tesla was more interested in broadcasting free energy than commercial radio programs.

Morgan wanted to know, "Where will you put the meter?" He refused to advance any more money. Work stopped. The huge transmitting tower fell into disrepair and was finally destroyed as a hazard.

The laboratory and land was identified by the Waldorf Astoria Hotel in payment for a $ 20,000 room bill.

In the ensuing years Tesla experimented with a "particle beam accelerator" that could destroy invading airplanes. The newspapers dubbed it a "death ray." Today we call it microwaves for kitchen ovens.

He invented a small "energy turbine" consisting of closely-spaced disks on an axle that spins on any gas or liquid containing energy – gasoline, hydrogen, propane, or methane – without burning the fuel.

Unfortunately the disks warp or melt from the molecular action of energy atoms. Energy and pollution problems would be solved if we could invent a suitable disk material.

Tesla postulated that sunlight could be converted directly into electricity (solar panels), energy could be extracted from atoms (bombs), hundreds of messages could be transmitted simultaneously over one circuit (fiber glass cable), drone planes could be powered by electricity (NASA) has one powered by solar cells circling indefinitely at a high altitude).

During the First World War he proposed bouncing radio waves off enemy airplanes to learn of their approach. The War Department ignored his proposal. It was not until World War II that RADAR was introduced.

He detected radio waves from outer space and thought they might be signals from aliens. We now know that radio waves from space are static left over from creation of the universe.

Talk of free energy, death rays, and space aliens led people to consider him a "mad scientist."

Tesla died in 1943, still a bachelor – and almost penniless – in a cheap hotel. Gone and forgotten.

Or, maybe not. On the day of his death, government agents went to his hotel room and confiscated his papers. They are classified "Top Secret."

All-Electric Full-Size Sedan by Tesla – Tesla's Model S Sedan

Tesla Model S sedan an all-electric, full-size sedan. It's able offer both spacious seating and cargo room in the trunk and under the hood. While the standard model seats five, it is available with an optional, rear-facing jump seat suitable for seating two children. Because the Tesla Sedan is not limited by gas tanks, catalytic converters, and any (ICE) internal combustion engine.

This takes the total seating availability to seven, making this car convenient for even the largest families. The Tesla Sedan debuted at the 2011 North American Auto Show, and the prototype's promises of 0-60 in 5.6 seconds and a top speed of 120 mph shattering stereotypes about electric vehicles.

The Model S is still in the testing stages, over 10-million miles of real-world driving feedback from drivers who own the Tesla Roaster have gone into the creation of the Model S. These appear to have been put to good use, with the Model S now featuring three battery options; a 300kW, or 400 hp, output; and a charging model compatible with 110 volt standard outlets, 220 volt outlets, and fast charging stations.

The three battery options for the Tesla Model S sedan give the car a range of 160-, 230-, or 300-miles. The sedan comes standard with the 160-mile range battery, with the 230-mile range and 300-mile range options as upgrades that cost an additional $ 10,000 and $ 20,000 respectively.

The Model S's base price is quoted at $ 49,900 after the federal tax credit.

Tesla Motors has stated that their goal is for the Model S to achieve the NTHSB five-star safety rating for front-impact crashes in 2012. They have also engineered the car so that the battery pack actually serves as part of the vehicle structure.

The battery is located underneath the floor of the sleek looking sedan, enabling the car to handle effortlessly. The Model S comes with a "Power Electronics Module" attached directly to the battery from the motor and gearbox, improving response times and efficiency by minimizing the distance electrical impulses must travel to power the car.

As a nod to their Silicone Valley ancestry, Tesla Motors has striven to retain the sports car feel of the Roadster in the Model S. To this end, the Model S has been designed with rear-wheel drive and its power-train to the rear .

Unlike the Tesla Roadster, which was built on the Lotus Elise frame, the Model S was designed entirely in-house. This, combined with the knowledge gathered from the 10-million real-world driving arrows from the Roadster, means the Model S is truly a unique sedan. Among the features that were optimized when the Model S was designed was a battery that, in addition to forming part of the car's structure, is located towards the rear of the car, along with the motor and power electronics, which are located between the rear wheels to increase response and handling. However, the car features only a single-speed gearbox.

Charging times for the standard, 160-mile range battery take only 45 minutes at a fast-charging station. A 220 volt outlet, such as those into which major appliances plug, can charge the Model S overnight. It is compatible with the 110 volt outlets that are standard throughout homes, but as these carry fewer amps expect the charging times to be significantly longer. The Model S can also be charged via a dedicated solar panel charging unit that feeds to the wall outlet.

Tesla claims to have advanced beyond the "memory effect" that has plagued other electric batteries. The car uses lithium ion cells, which do not exhibit memory effect, and will not lose significant charge if parked and not driven for an extended period time. However, it is recommended that the battery be plugged-in when not in use to preserve the life of the battery. Current estimates show that after seven years or 100,000-miles, the battery should retain 70% of its standard power.

As with any electric car, it is important to note that use of accessories such as air-conditioning and driving conditions and speed all affect the range of the car. Expect climate control to take five to ten percent off range of the car, while most other accessories will not affect the range much. Driving conditions, rate speed, and weather are also can significantly affect the battery's range and should be planned for accordingly.

The Model S is also designed to perform well in extreme operating conditions. The batter packs come equipped with re-circulating propylene glycol which acts to cool or heat the battery as necessary, meaning that the car will still function in the scorching summers of Tucson or the bitter winters of Maine.

It is important to note that, because the batter pack is part of the car design, size of the battery does not vary. Only its capacity does. What this means is that, for the standard 160-mile range battery, the company has used a different battery design than that used for their 230-mile and 300-mile range batteries. While specs related to battery weight have not been provided, more than likely the batteries weigh about the same, regardless of which battery range is purchased.

To purchase a Model S, interested parties will need to make a reservation. The Tesla reservation for the Model S will cost $ 5,000 and is fully refundable. Although annual production is planned to reach 20,000, only 5,000 to 7,000 are planned for the 2012 production year, as the company is working to reach full production capacity.

Additionally, some may be interested in reserving a Model S Signature sedan. The reservation fee for the Model S Signature sedan is $ 40,000 and, like reservations for the standard Model S, is fully refundable. The Model S Signature is a limited edition sedan that will be produced before the standard Model S goes into production. The first 1,000 Model S's produced for the US and the first 200 produced for Canada will be Model S Signature sedans. It will come standard with the 300-mile range battery pack, and while remaining mum on specific details, the company does promise the Model S Signature, as a limited edition model, will offer a range of upgraded features standard and may include colors and other options not available on the standard Model S. The Tesla Roadster sports car, comes with a base price of $ 109,000. It's rumored the Model S Signature, with a 300 mi range will have a MSRP of $ 80,000.

Production is slated to begin in the middle of 2012 with the Model S Signature sedans. When these have been completed, the Model S sedan will enter production. Reservation holders can expect to take a test drive at the beginning of 2012. If a reservation holder wishes to withdraw from their reservation and receive a full refund, this is when they should make that decision.

Approximately three months before the car is put into production, the reservation holder will be asked to work with the company to configure their car. Options and pricing for those options have not yet been finalized, but when they are, each reservation holder will have the opportunity to design their car to their comfort specifications.

Currently, the company has 17 stores worldwide with more planned. While this might alarm those who live far away from the nearest store and need their car serviced, these concerns have been eliminated with in the form of a service ranger program. This program sends trained technicians to the homes of owners in even the remotest of locations.

In keeping with their Silicone Valley image, the Tesla Model S sedan will be built in their Freemont, CA plant. All testing for the car is being done on-site there, so that plant managers have the opportunity to work with engineers. The company promises that this ensures that quality is built into the design. Currently, the car is in Alpha-stage testing. These 20-plus vehicles will be tested individually over 250,000 miles and crash tested before testing moves onto the Beta vehicles for refinement. Once fine-tuning is complete, the Model S Signature sedan will move into production, followed by the standard Model S.

It's natural to be skeptical of any start-up – especially one like Tesla with such a rocky image. But as we always say, product is king – and Tesla has a proven product already on the road. While the Model S has yet to prove itself, the Tesla Roadster has exceeded all expectations. If this car can do all that is claimed, electric vehicles will have come of age. Thus far, it appears that performance has been optimized, as has convenience.

Being able to charge the car on a standard wall outlet is a definite plus that opens up new avenues for travel, and the fact that the car can seat seven means this is one electric car that is not just built for families of two. If the Model S succeeds, it will be a coup for this upstart company and a major leap forward in all-electric technology.